Ecotourism and sustainable development pdf
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- Role of Ecotourism in Sustainable Development
- Role of Ecotourism in Sustainable Development
- [Dr. Martha Honey PhD] Ecotourism and Sustainable (b-ok.cc)
The purpose of this study is to systematically identify and examine the challenges and opportunities of ecotourism development in Wondo Genet and its vicinity, southern Ethiopia and thereby forward suggestions to pertinent ecotourism stakeholders. This study uses a mixed-method research approach and collects primary data from research participants survey respondents and 12 interviewees. Descriptive and inferential statistics and content analysis are used to analyze quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. The research findings unfold several constraints that deter successful ecotourism development along with opportunities that can be used in future development. Ecotourism is suggested as a complementary form of tourism development in Wondo Genet and its vicinity, as the area is known for its natural and cultural resources.
One of the greatest challenges of sustainable development is to protect biodiversity on a planet on which human pressure on the environment is constantly increasing Wilson Protected areas are essential if long-term conservation goals are to be achieved Dudley ; see also the UN Agenda for Sustainable Development, goal 15; UN Such areas include a variety of sites in which a wide range of different management approaches can be found, from strict nature reserves and wilderness areas with restricted or forbidden entrance International Union for Conservation of Nature 1a and b categories to National Parks, which emphasize protecting natural biodiversity and ecological processes, but also welcome visitors and promote environmental education, low-impact recreation, and marginal local economies Dudley In protected areas, various forms of sustainable tourism are allowed.
Sustainable tourism aims to promote the development of an area while ensuring its resources are not depleted for future generations by minimizing negative environmental impacts, maximizing positive socioeconomic effects and allowing for the even distribution of its benefits among the main stakeholders Spangenberg , Miller , Mowforth and Munt , Weaver , , Stoddard et al. The environmental dimension refers to the nature conservation and sustainable resources use of the area Naughton-Treves et al.
The social-cultural aspect encompasses various aspects pertaining to the local communities, such as civic pride, the revival of local culture, environmental education, welfare, reinforcement of social cohesion, tourist satisfaction, and the optimization of the relationship between hosts and guests Bartelmus , Pearce et al. The experience combines education, recreation, and often adventure Laarman and Durst , Dangi and Gribb Over the years, ecotourism holidays have grown faster than conventional trips and it seems that this trend will continue in the future Fennell Because an increased number of visitors may negatively affect natural ecosystems e.
In addition to the general definition cited above, ecotourism provides a unique opportunity to convey environmental and biological sustainability principles to the public, focusing in particular on nature conservation and the environmental impact of tourism.
This is especially important with regard to tourist-based infrastructure, such as park facilities, accommodation, and transport Van Oosterzee A well-planned and managed ecotourism development program represents a unique chance to implement a win-win strategy as set out in the UN Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals Gale and Hill , Colglazier , UN , Job et al.
There are several benefits to be gained from implementing ecotourism objectives. For example, substantial income can be generated from the local enhancement of natural resources, such as organic farming or sustainable forestry e. Indeed, a correct framework for sustainable tourism in protected areas should include the active participation of the three main stakeholders, i.
Avoiding conflicts between residents and tourists and increasing stakeholder benefits should represent a particularly important goal Phillips , Lee , Liang and Hui , Jeon et al. For example, residents could be involved in tourism planning, thus giving the local community an enhanced sense of control and supervision over the territory they inhabit, to guarantee social-cultural sustainability Wearing and Wearing , Lee , Peng et al.
National parks are currently attempting to reconcile the dual goals of protecting biodiversity and promoting sustainable development. On account of the rapid growth of tourism in these areas, national parks are globally considered important development tools Frost and Hall , Manning and Anderson In fact, national parks are frequently located in underdeveloped and isolated inland zones, often characterized by high unemployment and resulting depopulation.
Within this general picture, mountain areas represent biodiversity hotspots Hoorn et al. The presence of historical villages is an additional characteristic of Italian national parks in mountain areas, which provides tourists with the choice of a wide range of local, natural, and cultural resources. These include not only natural features but also interesting historical and cultural attractions, together with gastronomic specialities, with the potential to increase benefits for local residents, together with favoring tourism sustainability Unioncamere There a couple of reasons why national parks in the Apennine Mountains in Italy are particularly suited for the implementation of the Agenda b UN : 1 these parks host well-preserved mountain ecosystems, e.
In this scenario, a knowledge of the major social, cultural, economic, and ecological factors influencing levels of tourist satisfaction represents the best way to maximize the potential benefits of ecotourism Torres-Sovero et al.
We carried out an investigation of the main characteristics of ecotourism in four Italian national parks within the frame of a broader project aimed at promoting sustainable development in Italian mountain areas Italian Mountain Lab.
The four parks selected for our survey are situated along the whole Apennine range, each representing a different administrative, bio geographical, and socioeconomic context. This study represents a first attempt to get quantitative feedback on the strengths and weaknesses linked to the implementation of ecotourism in the four national parks surveyed while, at the same time, obtaining information on particular aspects related to the different geographical and social features of each individual park.
The data were gathered using questionnaires administered to hiking guides with park accreditation, aimed at obtaining information based on their experience and qualified perspective. Opinions relating to the public perception of the role of Apennine National Parks in nature conservation, and the services and facilities offered to ecotourists were also collected to pinpoint strategies aimed at improving sustainable tourism, consistent with nature conservation, sustainability education, and communication.
The Apennines are a mountain range forming the backbone of the Italian peninsula: they extend approximately in a NW-SE direction for circa km, with maximum elevation at Gran Sasso m a. There are 11 national parks NPs along the Apennine chain out of a total of 24 NPs in Italy, with four being the focus of this study.
These NPs were selected because they are evenly distributed along the Apennine mountain range and span seven administrative regions of Italy for details see Table 1. Oak or beech forests cover most of the park areas, with a network of towns and villages, especially in the valley bottoms, surrounded by farmland e.
In addition, 10 old-growth beech forests in the Italian Apennines, i. Data on visitors, tourist accommodations, and number of accredited hiking guides for each of the surveyed NPs are reported in Table 1.
Questionnaires consisting of 85 questions were administered to accredited hiking guides. Of these, 30 questions consisted of answers representing categorical variables see Table 1A in Appendix 1 and 55 consisted of quantitative answers see Table 2A in Appendix 1.
There are a total of guides in the 4 surveyed parks. With regard to categorical variables, these were derived from both open and closed questions see Appendix 1, Table 1A. Questions were also aimed at evaluating the degree of satisfaction with facilities and services currently offered by national parks to ecotourists. Questionnaires were sent via email to guides by park administrations. Responses were collected between July and November An exploratory, quantitative approach using several multivariate statistical techniques was employed in this research, as set out by Tukey Principal component analysis PCA; Mardia et al.
Statistics were done using R R Core Team We first investigated our quantitative variables by means of PCA, a multivariate statistical technique that optimally approximates several variables with a smaller number of their linear projections principal components, PCs; Mardia et al. Principal components are mutually uncorrelated and ordered to give decreasing contributions to the approximation of the original variables.
Graphical representations of PCs can be very helpful in detecting interesting data features. The amount of variance explained by the PCs is quantified by the ratio of the sum of their variances to the sum of the variances of the original variables.
The higher the ratio, the better the chosen PCs approximate the original variables and the more reliable their graphical representations are. Significance of the first principal component variables loadings was assessed through a bootstrapping to quantify the extent of contribution for each variable to the first component. Subsequently, an LDA was performed to discriminate the four Italian national parks, i. The ratio of the variance between the projected group means and the variance of the projection sometimes called discriminating ratio assesses the separation into different groups.
The higher the ratio, the better is the separation between groups. Because outliers strongly influence the LDA output, these were identified through a projection pursuit PP analysis and subsequently removed Loperfido A PP was performed choosing skewness as the projection index, as suggested by Loperfido , which highlighted the advantages of skewness-based PP for outlier detection.
The graphical representation of CA is the biplot, whose points represent either row row points or column column points profiles. A row point close to a column point suggests that the corresponding categories are positively associated, i. A row column point far from the origin suggests that the corresponding row column profile is very different from the average row column profile. The reliability of the biplot is measured through the percentage of association explained by the axes, with higher percentages suggesting stronger reliability.
Descriptive statistics are reported for a number of variables that were not selected for CA. These variables include the level of knowledge about old-growth forests and the rewilding process, two issues that are becoming very relevant in NP planning and management Navarro and Pereira The response rate out of the total number of emails sent for each park was: Descriptive statistics means, standard deviations, and PCA loadings of the quantitative responses of the 78 hiking guides that participated to the survey is reported in Appendix 1, Table 2A.
The level of satisfaction with regard to some specific topics was also tested. The strong correlation between PC1 scores and the mean score value provided by each single guide is shown in Figure 2. Most of the hiking guides gave an opinion that scored higher than three on average. Only eight cases There are three best discriminating directions that are shown by the scatter plots Fig.
The discriminating ratio of LD1 is 0. The variables that most contribute to the discrimination relate to the main reasons for tourists wanting to visit the national park e.
The discriminating ratio of LD2 is 0. The variable that is mostly correlated with the discriminating ratio is wildlife sightseeing, representing one of the main reasons for wanting to visit a park 0. The discriminating ratio of LD3 is 0. In general, the discrimination ratio is mostly correlated with the promotion activities carried out by parks: promotion activities linked to sustainable tourism is the variable showing the highest correlation 0.
Furthermore, the Chi-square test for independence showed nonsignificant differences among parks attributable to gender. On the other hand, guides from ANP tend to have a heterogeneous level of education either very low or very high , whereas most of the guides from FCNP hold an academic degree.
Although the biplot is very reliable, accounting for Among the answers with higher loading values see PCA: Fig. Overall, the PCA revealed that all interviewed hiking guides across the entire Apennine mountain chain appeared to be sensitive to the theme of sustainability: despite the heterogeneity of the geographical areas analyzed and the diverse characteristics of hiking guides in terms of gender, age, education, and employment Table 6A in Appendix 1.
The first principal component seems to indicate that hiking guides share a common awareness of the strategic aspects with respect to environmental sustainability.
These results show, therefore, that the main framework and goals of sustainable development in protected areas in the Apennine range are now a widely held cultural norm among the interviewed hiking guides. Moreover, the relationship between the experience of nature and supporting conservation messaging is complex e. Concerns about environmental problems do have an important role in prompting conservation engagement Massingham et al.
Because people are more likely to take or approve conservation actions when they directly experience the natural world e. Therefore, our results highlight the need to improve conservation messaging strategies in national parks, together with lifelong learning processes to provide hiking guides with up-to-date knowledge on environmentally significant issues.
This would encourage tourists to explore wild nature, such as old-growth forests Chiarucci and Piovesan , and to understand the underlying mechanisms, helping to promote a collective culture oriented toward the conservation of biodiversity and the mitigation of climate change. Therefore, their role should be given more importance, leading to an enhancement of their sense of responsibility to nature conservation.
This research highlights the need for a revision of the accreditation system aimed at including specific training on wilderness and conservation messaging.
The goal is to provide hiking guides with increased, up-to-date knowledge and skills on natural processes and solutions aimed at reducing tourist impact on the environment. The enhancement of typical, local products can represent a win-win solution reducing the ecotourism footprint and revitalizing the supply chain linked to a niche market.
In addition, improving the sustainability of natural resources through investment in agroforestry and organic farming would achieve several goals: 1 provide tourists with healthy products; 2 increase income derived from a valuable local food supply chain; 3 help to maintain local varieties and the complex cultural landscape surrounding the towns and villages; and 4 reduce the ecological footprint, especially in those tourism experiences that are highly reliant on fish and meat products e.
With regard to forest management, the diverse educational backgrounds of the hiking guides led us to expect to see different ideas in their feedback on the appropriateness and negative effects of forest cutting in protected areas.
Data analysis actually revealed a large variation on how forest harvesting activities are perceived by responders. Responses range from completely negative to ones in which forestry actions are considered as necessary management activities. The negative judgements given by the guides from the two southernmost national parks PNP and ANP highlight a marked concern for wilderness protection and for the possible negative effects of forest harvesting: in this case, distrust toward forestry sustainability may have its roots in a long history of resource depletion and illegal logging in Southern Italy e.
On the other hand, silviculture activities in ALNP and FCNP are seen in terms of their economic benefits or simply as necessary forestry management activities.
Role of Ecotourism in Sustainable Development
One of the greatest challenges of sustainable development is to protect biodiversity on a planet on which human pressure on the environment is constantly increasing Wilson Protected areas are essential if long-term conservation goals are to be achieved Dudley ; see also the UN Agenda for Sustainable Development, goal 15; UN Such areas include a variety of sites in which a wide range of different management approaches can be found, from strict nature reserves and wilderness areas with restricted or forbidden entrance International Union for Conservation of Nature 1a and b categories to National Parks, which emphasize protecting natural biodiversity and ecological processes, but also welcome visitors and promote environmental education, low-impact recreation, and marginal local economies Dudley In protected areas, various forms of sustainable tourism are allowed. Sustainable tourism aims to promote the development of an area while ensuring its resources are not depleted for future generations by minimizing negative environmental impacts, maximizing positive socioeconomic effects and allowing for the even distribution of its benefits among the main stakeholders Spangenberg , Miller , Mowforth and Munt , Weaver , , Stoddard et al. The environmental dimension refers to the nature conservation and sustainable resources use of the area Naughton-Treves et al.
Items in Shodhganga are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Shodhganga Mirror Site. Show full item record. Ecotourism and sustainable development A study with special reference to south Kerala. Nirmala Devi D. School of Gandian Thought and Development Studies.
Ecotourism is catering for tourists wishing to experience the natural environment without damaging it or disturbing its habitats. It is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism. It means responsible travel to natural areas, conserving the environment, and improving the well-being of the local people. Since the s, ecotourism has been considered a critical endeavor by environmentalists, so that future generations may experience destinations relatively untouched by human intervention. Generally, ecotourism deals with interaction with biotic components of the natural environments.
PDF | Lack of the social and economic infrastructure in the forest villages causes social Keywords: Ecotourism, forest villagers, sustainable rural development.
Role of Ecotourism in Sustainable Development
The ecotourism is global issues who most talked lately in Indonesia, it is one of the activities special tourist interest which low impacts on natural tourism. The presence of ecotourism in the era of sustainable and tourism development mission should be minimum negative impacts, both on the environment resources and on socio-cultural local values. Ecotourism activities were more oriented on the utilization of natural resources, the natural ecosystems and have not been polluted yet.
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[Dr. Martha Honey PhD] Ecotourism and Sustainable (b-ok.cc)
If this growth is not properly planned for, it can cause social, economic, and environmental impacts to tourist destinations. To address such tourism impacts, scholars and practitioners have turned to ecotourism, hoping it can mitigate negative impacts by ensuring visitors adhere to sustainability principles. Despite ecotourism's promotion of sustainable practices and principles, however, the potential for negative impacts are great when ecotourism occurs in sensitive, nature-based areas such as protected, conserved, and private lands. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight on sustainability practices that could be integrated into ecotourism operations to minimize negative impacts and ensure long-term protection of vital resources. As it is commonly understood, ecotourism means responsible travel to natural areas that ensures environmental conservation as well as fostering the well-being of local communities and includes education and interpretation The International Ecotourism Society This form of tourism is intended to address the negative impacts associated with nature-based mass tourism through the implementation of sustainable practices.
Наконец Нуматака спросил: - Где ключ. - Вам нужно знать только одно: он будет найден. - Откуда такая уверенность. - Не я один его ищу. Американская разведка тоже идет по следу.
Первая буква вроде бы О, или Q, или ноль: глаза у него так болели. что он не мог разобрать, но все-таки кое-как прочитал первые буквы, В них не было никакого смысла. И это вопрос национальной безопасности. Беккер вошел в телефонную будку и начал набирать номер Стратмора. Не успел он набрать международный код, как в трубке раздался записанный на пленку голос: Todos los circuitos estan ocupados - Пожалуйста, положите трубку и перезвоните позднее.
Ecotourism is a sub-component of the field of sustainable tourism. Ecotourism's perceived potential as an effective tool for sustainable development is the main.