Medicinal plant and their uses pdf
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Medicinal Plants of the World, Volume 3
This is an alphabetical list of plants used in herbalism. The ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are possibly used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi, and herbivorous mammals is called herbal medicine.
Many of these phytochemicals have beneficial effects on long-term health when consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases. For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination. It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs—examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias , quinine from the cinchona , morphine and codeine from the poppy , and digoxin from the foxglove.
Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effects on the human body through processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs; thus herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work.
This enables herbal medicines to be as effective as conventional medicines, but also gives them the same potential to cause harmful side effects. In Europe, apothecaries stocked herbal ingredients for their medicines. In the Latin names for plants created by Linnaeus , the word officinalis indicates that a plant was used in this way. For example, the marsh mallow has the classification Althaea officinalis , as it was traditionally used as an emollient to soothe ulcers.
Pharmacognosy is the branch of modern medicine about medicines from plant sources. Plants included here are those that have been or are being used medicinally, in at least one such medicinal tradition. Modern medicine now tends to use the active ingredients of plants rather than the whole plants. The phytochemicals may be synthesized, compounded or otherwise transformed to make pharmaceuticals. Examples of such derivatives include digoxin, from digitalis ; capsaicine , from chili ; and aspirin , which is chemically related to the salicylic acid found in white willow.
The opium poppy continues to be a major industrial source of opiates, including morphine. Few traditional remedies, however, have translated into modern drugs, although there is continuing research into the efficacy and possible adaptation of traditional herbal treatments. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. This article may present fringe theories , without giving appropriate weight to the mainstream view , and explaining the responses to the fringe theories.
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Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Chinese classic herbal formula List of branches of alternative medicine List of culinary herbs and spices List of herbs with known adverse effects Materia Medica Medicinal mushrooms Medicinal plants of the American West Medicinal plants traditionally used by the indigenous peoples of North America Naturopathic medicine Wikispecies. August The Medical Journal of Australia.
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Here are some common medicinal herbs. Most herbs have not been completely tested to see how well they work or to see if they interact with other herbs, supplements, medicines, or foods. Products added to herbal preparations may also cause interactions. Considered by some to be a cure-all, chamomile is commonly used in the U. It is used in Europe for wound healing and to reduce inflammation or swelling.
There are no visible and concerted efforts geared towards the conservation and wise-use of medicinal plants, the supply of which is dwindling glven the threats of.
This is an alphabetical list of plants used in herbalism. The ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are possibly used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi, and herbivorous mammals is called herbal medicine. Many of these phytochemicals have beneficial effects on long-term health when consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases.
Akbar holds an M. He served as a Professor of Pharmacology, and has over thirty years of experience in pharmacological research and teaching to medical and pharmacy students. He has many research papers published in international journals, book chapters on beta-blockers, and books related to natural products and general health.
Соши смотрела на монитор и читала вслух: - В бомбе, сброшенной на Нагасаки, использовался не плутоний, а искусственно произведенный, обогащенный нейтронами изотоп урана с атомным весом 238. - Черт возьми! - выругался Бринкерхофф. - В обеих бомбах уран. Элементы, ответственные за Хиросиму и Нагасаки, - оба являются ураном. Никакого различия.
Тогда откуда же пришла команда на ручное отключение.
- Мистер Беккер, пожалуйста, продиктуйте надпись. Медленно и отчетливо. Дэвид Беккер начал читать, Джабба печатал следом за. Когда все было закончено, они проверили орфографические ошибки и удалили пробелы. В центре панели на экране, ближе к верхнему краю, появились буквы: QUISCUSTODIETIPSOSCUSTODES - Мне это не нравится, - тихо проговорила Сьюзан. - Не вижу чистоты.
- Кто будет охранять охранников. Иными словами - кто будет охранять Агентство национальной безопасности, пока мы охраняем мир. Это было любимое изречение, которым часто пользовался Танкадо. - И что же, - спросила Мидж, - это и есть искомый ключ. - Наверняка, - объявил Бринкерхофф. Фонтейн молча обдумывал информацию. - Не знаю, ключ ли это, - сказал Джабба.
Я еле добрел. - Он не предложил вам больницы поприличнее. - На этой его чертовой тарантайке.