Coordination dynamics issues and trends pdf
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In this work, we provide a theoretical analysis of quantized capacitance also referred to as solvated Coulomb blockade as a pseudocapacitive energy storage mechanism. It is demonstrated that nanoparticles exhibiting quantized capacitance may satisfy the first criterion by tailoring their charging and reorganization energies. It is also shown that the second criterion can be satisfied so long as the voltammetric scan rate does not exceed the electron-transfer rate. By formulating a comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding the electron-transfer properties of quantized capacitance, we arrive at a general phenomenological description of how pseudocapacitive properties might be practically engineered through this mechanism.
Coordination Dynamics: Issues and Trends
Should science exorcise meaning or try to come to grips with it? And if so, how? The key to understanding meaningful matter as it is manifested in behavior and the brain lies in understanding coordination. Coordination refers not just to matter in motion, nor to complex adaptive matter: it refers to the functional — informationally meaningful — coupling among interacting processes in space and time.
Such functional spatiotemporal ordering comes in many guises in living things, from genes to cells to neural ensembles and circuitry to behavior both individual and group and cognition.
It is a truism nowadays that biological processes, at all scales of observation, are highly degenerate [2, 3] and obey the principle of functional equivalence [4, 5]. It is called coordination dynamics e. CD addresses coordination within a part or process of a system, between different parts and processes and between different kinds of system For a trilogy of encyclopedia articles on CD, and the many references contained therein, the reader is referred to Fuchs and Kelso , Oullier and Kelso , and Kelso ; see also Criticality in Neural Systems, First Edition.
Edited by Dietmar Plenz and Ernst Niebur. Self-organizing processes and meaningful information in animate, living things are deeply entwined and inseparable aspects of CD. Self-organizing processes create meaningful information in coupled dynamical systems, which in turn are capable of sculpting or guiding the self-organizing dynamics to suit the needs of an organism .
In CD, the organism qua agent and the environment are not two separate things, each with their own properties, but rather one single coevolving system see also . As far as CD is concerned, to refer to a system in its environment or to analyze a system plus an environment, although common in practice, are questionable assumptions. They will be relational and dynamic, evolving on many spatiotemporal scales. Although they will be bounded by levels above and below, on any given level of description they will have their own emergent descriptions [11, 21].
The form of point. Adapted from Wilson . See between block spins, but only text for details. All the aforementioned — and many others, of course — have, I think, something essential in common: they exemplify a search for the connections between the ways different kinds of processes behave, at many different levels of description and scales of energy, length, and time. For a concrete yet conceptually rich example, take the work of the late Kenneth Wilson — who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in for a quanti- tative understanding of phase transitions — how matter changes from one form to another.
Such processes range across many scales of magnitude and functioning timescales. Each frame of motion reveals the effect of his mathematical method the so-called block spin transformation. This transformation allows the marble to move but the speed and direction of the marble are dictated by the slope of the surface. Knowing the slope of the surface as the system approaches the critical point, one can calculate how the properties of the system vary as the coupling strength between the block spins changes — precisely the information one needs to understand critical phenomena.
The test, of course, of any good theory is how it matches and even predicts experimental data; in the case of phase transitions, the data base is very rich indeed. Imagine what the early humans must have felt when they heated up water and it turned into vapor or during the winter when the ponds outside their caves turned into ice.
On an ordinary temperature scale, different systems have different critical temperatures. That is, the macroscopic properties of different systems are proportional to the absolute value of t raised to some power.
This means that to properly characterize critical phenomena in thermodynamic systems, one needs to determine what that power is, that is, the value of the critical exponents.
Analogy is often useful in science and sometimes leads to important insights. In this case, analogy leads us to inquire if the theoretical concepts and methods used to understand collective or cooperative behavior in nature may enable us to better understand the brain and its relation to what people do.
With its billions of neurons, astrocytes, and vast connectiv- ity, does the brain exhibit collective behavior and phase transitions? Important though it may be to study the many varieties of neurons and their molecular and atomic constituents as individual entities, is the emergence of collective or coordinative behavior a fundamental aspect of brain and behavioral function? Once one grasps the analogy, the answer might seem as obvious as an apple falling from a tree, but we cannot assume it to be so.
We also know that many parameters in physical systems are irrelevant and have no effect whatsoever on how the system behaves. The numerous different crystalline structures in ferromagnets, for example, exhibit the same critical behavior. In complex nervous systems, neither the order parameters nor the control parameters are known in advance, never mind their lawful relationship.
Although some of the same concepts of phase transitions in physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium are useful, entirely new methods and tools are needed to handle phenomena associated with nonequilibrium phase transitions . The lat- ter occur in open systems whose internal and external components form a mutually coupled dynamical system. Without a metabolism, for example, a living system cannot function. Without exchanges of energy, matter, or information with their surroundings, living things can maintain neither structure nor function.
In actual fact, viewed through a certain lens, the entire range of transition behavior order to order, order to disorder, disorder to order , resulting phases, and the many mixtures thereof can be observed in biological coordination in different systems.
Whether patterns of coordination emerge as collective effects in nervous systems composed of a large number and variety of heterogeneous microscopic components and connections is an open question. Is there any reason to think that the brain, body, and environment are fundamentally self-organized?
If such a complex system is governed by laws of coordination dynamics, how would we even go about establishing that? What are these putative laws and what are their consequences for the ways we investigate complex systems such as the brain? Similar to resting-state networks, coor- tures.
And from that case we gradually rise again in generality … and if we are lucky we end up with an idea no less universal than the one from which we began. Gone may be much of its emotional appeal, but it has the same or even greater unifying power in the realm of thought and is exact instead of vague , p.
Tipping points, similar to catastrophe theory, are just another catchy word for criticality. Consider an ordinary movement. On the sensory side, billions of receptor elements embedded in skin, joints, tendons, and muscles inform the mover about her movement. And this occurs in a world of light and sound and smell. Clearly, any ordinary human activity would seem to require the coordination among very many structurally diverse elements — at many scales of observation.
As Maxine Sheets-Johnstone  says in her wonderful book, the primacy of movement for living things has gone unrecognized and unexamined. We come into the world moving. We are never still. Just to be clear, we are not talking about the many useful applications of physics to biological systems, i. Instead of or along with inquiring how complexity can arise from simple rules , we may also ask how an extremely high-dimensional space is compressed into something lower dimensional and controllable that meets the demands of the environment and the needs of the organism.
What principles underlie how enormous compositional complexity produces behavioral simplicity? This is a fundamental problem of living movement, and perhaps of life itself. In science, we often make progress by taking big problems and breaking them into smaller pieces.
In the late s and early s, my students and I produced empirical evidence for a candidate called a coordinative structure [42, 43].
Coordinative structures are functional linkages among structural elements that are temporarily constrained to act as a single coherent unit. Perturbing them in one place produces remote compensatory effects somewhere else without disrupting, indeed preserving, functional integrity for the history and evidence behind this proposal, see [11, 17, 44, 45]. Although beyond the scope of this chapter, a strong case can be made that coordinative structures — structural or functional effects produced by combining different elements — are units of selection in evolution [46, 47] and intentional change [48, 49].
Coordinative structures are preferred here because they are an expression of both structure the context-dependent elements and their interaction and function e. One imagines that coordinative structures are used to accomplish many behavioral, cognitive, and affective functions. In other words, is the problem of coordination in living things continuous with cooperative and critical phenomena in open, nonequilibrium systems?
This is not to say that very special boundary conditions do not exist in neurobehavioral coordination, intention among them [11, 51]. The vague idea or intuition is that biological coordination is fundamentally a self-organizing dynamical process. Ideally, one would like to have a simple model system that affords the analysis of pattern formation and pattern change, both in terms of experimental data and theoretical tools.
An experimental advantage is that rhythmic movements, although variable and capable of adjusting to circumstances, are highly reproducible. Moreover, an extensive and informative literature on rhythmical behavior exists in neurobiological systems in vertebrates and invertebrates [52—60], the brain [61—64], and biological clocks in general .
Rhythmic behavior in living things is produced by a diversity of mechanisms. The goal here — by analogy to the theory of phase transitions — is to understand how all these different mechanisms might follow the same basic rules.
To go beyond metaphor and analogy, we need an experimental window into biological coordination that might allow us to transcend different systems and reveal the operation of higher order principles. Yet, in addition to being degenerate, different anatomical combinations capable of accomplishing the same outcome, coordinative structures are also multifunctional: they often use the same anatomical components to accomplish different functions.
What was needed was to invent an experimental model system that affords looking at how people do more than one thing under the same conditions. One of the early ways we used to identify coordinative structures in perceptuomotor behavior was to seek invariants under transformation.
More simply, to see if despite many variations, for example, in the activity of neurons, muscles, and joints, some quantities are preserved, while other variables, such as the forces that have to be generated to accomplish a given task, are altered. We used this strategy to uncover a coordinative structure in studies of discrete interlimb coordination: we found, in these experiments on voluntary movement, that the brain does not coordinate the limbs independently but rather preserves their relative timing by means of functional linkages — neurons, joints, and muscles are constrained to act as a single unit .
The same seems to hold in speech . In the former pattern, homologous muscles contract simultaneously; in the latter, the muscles contract in an alternating manner. In various experiments, subjects either just increased frequency voluntarily or a pacing metronome was used, the frequency of which was systematically changed from 1. What was discovered was that when subjects began in the antiphase pattern, at a certain frequency or movement rate they spontaneously shifted into the in-phase pattern.
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Coordination dynamics issues and trends
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This book brings together scientists from all over the world who have defined and developed the field of Coordination Dynamics. Grounded in the concepts of self-organization and the tools of nonlinear. Download Or Read Online Of coordination dynamics issues and trends Ebooks - you can on other cloud hosting like google drive dropbox onedrive or etc coordination dynamics issues and trends Coordination dynamics issues and trends By J. Rowling - coordination represents one of the most striking most taken for granted but least Hinta ,4. Aina edulliset hinnat, ilmainen toimitus yli 39,90 tilauksiin ja nopea kuljetus.
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Но сейчас только без четверти. Двухцветный посмотрел на часы Беккера. Его лицо казалось растерянным.