Common acids and bases list pdf
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- Formulas of Common Acids and Bases
- Formulas of Common Acids and Bases
- 7.8: Acids and Bases in Industry and in Daily Life
Strong and weak acids are important to know both for chemistry class and for use in the lab. There are very few strong acids, so one of the easiest ways to tell strong and weak acids apart is to memorize the short list of strong ones. Any other acid is considered a weak acid.
Formulas of Common Acids and Bases
All definitions agree that bases are substances which react with acids as originally proposed by G. Rouelle in the midth century. Such aqueous hydroxide solutions were also described by certain characteristic properties. They are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter  and change the color of pH indicators e. In water, by altering the autoionization equilibrium , bases yield solutions in which the hydrogen ion activity is lower than it is in pure water, i.
Metal oxides , hydroxides, and especially alkoxides are basic, and conjugate bases of weak acids are weak bases. A reaction between aqueous solutions of an acid and a base is called neutralization , producing a solution of water and a salt in which the salt separates into its component ions. If the aqueous solution is saturated with a given salt solute , any additional such salt precipitates out of the solution.
Lewis realized that water, ammonia and other bases can form a bond with a proton due to the unshared pair of electrons that the bases possess.
One notable example is boron trifluoride BF 3. Some other definitions of both bases and acids have been proposed in the past, but are not commonly used today. The equilibrium constant, K b , for this reaction can be found using the following general equation: . Bases react with acids to neutralize each other at a fast rate both in water and in alcohol. If equal quantities of NaOH and HCl are dissolved, the base and the acid neutralize exactly, leaving only NaCl, effectively table salt , in solution.
Weak bases, such as baking soda or egg white, should be used to neutralize any acid spills. Neutralizing acid spills with strong bases, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide , can cause a violent exothermic reaction, and the base itself can cause just as much damage as the original acid spill. Bases are generally compounds that can neutralize an amount of acids. From this, a pH , or acidity, can be calculated for aqueous solutions of bases.
Bases also directly act as electron-pair donors themselves:. A base is also defined as a molecule that has the ability to accept an electron pair bond by entering another atom's valence shell through its possession of one electron pair.
Fluorine and sometimes rare gases possess this ability as well. Bases of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen without resonance stabilization are usually very strong, or superbases , which cannot exist in a water solution due to the acidity of water.
Resonance stabilization, however, enables weaker bases such as carboxylates; for example, sodium acetate is a weak base. Common examples of strong bases include hydroxides of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, like NaOH and Ca OH 2 , respectively. Due to their low solubility, some bases, such as alkaline earth hydroxides, can be used when the solubility factor is not taken into account.
Here is a list of several strong bases:. The cations of these strong bases appear in the first and second groups of the periodic table alkali and earth alkali metals. Tetraalkylated ammonium hydroxides are also strong bases since they dissociate completely in water. Guanidine is a special case of a species that is exceptionally stable when protonated, analogously to the reason that makes perchloric acid and sulfuric acid very strong acids.
Acids with a p K a of more than about 13 are considered very weak, and their conjugate bases are strong bases. Group 1 salts of carbanions, amides, and hydrides tend to be even stronger bases due to the extreme weakness of their conjugate acids, which are stable hydrocarbons, amines, and dihydrogen.
Usually, these bases are created by adding pure alkali metals such as sodium into the conjugate acid. They are called superbases , and it is impossible to keep them in water solution because they are stronger bases than the hydroxide ion. As such, they deprotonate conjugate acid water.
For example, the ethoxide ion the conjugate base of ethanol in the presence of water undergoes this reaction. A weak base is one which does not fully ionize in an aqueous solution , or in which protonation is incomplete. For example, ammonia transfers a proton to water according to the equation .
A Lewis base or electron-pair donor is a molecule with a high-energy pair of electrons which can be shared with a low-energy vacant orbital in an acceptor molecule to form an adduct. Adducts involving metal ions are usually described as coordination complexes. According to the original formulation of Lewis , when a neutral base forms a bond with a neutral acid, a condition of electric stress occurs. Depending on a solid surface's ability to successfully form a conjugate base by absorbing an electrically neutral acid, the basic strength of the surface is determined.
Basic substances can be used as insoluble heterogeneous catalysts for chemical reactions. Some examples are metal oxides such as magnesium oxide , calcium oxide , and barium oxide as well as potassium fluoride on alumina and some zeolites. Many transition metals make good catalysts, many of which form basic substances. Basic catalysts have been used for hydrogenations , the migration of double bonds , in the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction , the Michael reaction , and many other reactions.
Both CaO and BaO can be highly active catalysts if they are treated with high temperature heat. The number of ionizable hydroxide OH- ions present in one molecule of base is called the acidity of bases. When one molecule of a base via complete ionization produces one hydroxide ion, the base is said to be a monoacidic base.
Examples of monoacidic bases are:. Sodium hydroxide , potassium hydroxide , silver hydroxide , ammonium hydroxide , etc. When one molecule of base via complete ionization produces two hydroxide ions, the base is said to be diacidic. Examples of diacidic bases are:. Barium hydroxide , magnesium hydroxide , calcium hydroxide , zinc hydroxide , iron II hydroxide , tin II hydroxide , lead II hydroxide , copper II hydroxide , etc.
When one molecule of base via complete ionization produces three hydroxide ions, the base is said to be triacidic. Aluminium hydroxide , ferrous hydroxide , Gold Trihydroxide , . The concept of base stems from an older alchemical notion of "the matrix":. In Rouelle explicitly defined a neutral salt as the product formed by the union of an acid with any substance, be it a water-soluble alkali, a volatile alkali, an absorbent earth, a metal, or an oil, capable of serving as "a base" for the salt "by giving it a concrete or solid form.
Hence it was the substance that neutralized the acid which supposedly destroyed the volatility or spirit of the acid and which imparted the property of solidity i. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of chemical substance. For other uses, see Base disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Superbase. Main article: weak base. New York: W. Freeman and Co. Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 3 May September Journal of the Franklin Institute. Retrieved 3 September Saunders College Publishing.
Geoffrey General Chemistry. Prentice Hall. Solid Acids and Bases: their catalytic properties. Academic Press. Retrieved 19 February New Solid Acids and Bases: their catalytic properties. City Collegiate. Archived from the original on 30 June Retrieved 20 June Science Dictionary. Retrieved 14 March The Journal of Chemical Education. Bibcode : JChEd.. Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Whitten, Kenneth W.
Zumdahl, Steven; DeCoste, Donald Mary Finch. Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from June Articles with permanently dead external links Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages Articles needing additional references from September All articles needing additional references Use dmy dates from June Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with multiple identifiers.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read View source View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Cesium hydroxide.
Formulas of Common Acids and Bases
Essentially, none of the non-ionized acid HA remains. Examples of strong acids and bases are given in the table below. A weak acid or a weak base only partially dissociates. At equilibrium, both the acid and the conjugate base are present in solution. Examples of weak acids and bases are given in the table below.
7.8: Acids and Bases in Industry and in Daily Life
Heartburn is caused by a buildup of excessive amounts of stomach acid, particularly HCl. Antacids are available over the counter and are taken by mouth to quickly relieve occasional heartburn, the major symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease and also indigestion. Treatment with antacids alone is symptomatic and only justified for minor symptoms. Antacids contain alkaline ions that chemically neutralize stomach gastric acid, reducing damage and relieving pain. For example, Tums is a very commonly used antacid that can be bought over the counter.
Use this acids and bases chart to find the relative strength of the most common acids and bases. The acid and base chart is a reference table designed to make determining the strength of acids and bases simpler. This chart is ideal for use in the lab or in the classroom. Learn how to use this acid base chart. Download chart.