United nations structure and functions pdf
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- Principal organs
- The Role of the UN General Assembly
- History and Structure of the United Nations
- Basic Principles and Purposes of the United Nations
It will mark the event on September 21 with a high-level meeting. For the first time in UN history, the session will be held almost entirely online, due to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic and regulations on international travel and large gatherings. United Nations.
By Leland Goodrich. The United Nations is primarily a peacekeeping organization. But it has other important jobs, too. It helps nations deal with economic and social problems.
It promotes respect for human rights. It works to advance justice and international law. And it helps victims of wars, famines, and other disasters.
The United Nations Charter lists basic principles that the organization and member states agree to respect. Some of these are designed to limit the power of the organization. One of these is the principle of sovereign equality. This means that each member nation is equal. Another is the principle of nonintervention. This means that the United Nations will intervene only in international problems, not in the domestic problems of a country. Other principles emphasize the use of peaceful means for settling disputes.
They require that nations avoid threatening other nations with force or actually using force. Member nations are also asked to support the United Nations in peacekeeping operations. And they are asked to do nothing to interfere with the activities of the organization.
The United Nations also tries to prevent nonmembers from doing anything to disturb the peace. The organization operates through its six major organs. Each is represented by a delegation of not more than five representatives. The General Assembly is composed of all the member nations. The General Assembly can discuss and make recommendations on any matter within the scope of the charter. It has been called the "town meeting of the world. It adopts rules governing the administration of the Secretariat.
It also approves the United Nations budget. And it decides how much money each member nation should pay to run the organization. Decisions in the General Assembly may be made by a simple majority vote or, on important questions, by a two-thirds vote.
Smaller nations have a great deal of influence in the General Assembly because each country casts one vote. The UN Charter established a Security Council made up of the five nations that in were considered the most powerful in the world. The council's primary function was to maintain international peace and security.
The UN Charter requires that the permanent members agree on all decisions made by the council, except for questions of procedure. If even one permanent member vetoes rejects a council decision, that decision is defeated.
The Security Council also has ten nonpermanent members. They serve 2-year terms. Each year the General Assembly elects five new nations. These nations are chosen from all over the world. This helps ensure fair representation of all regions. The Security Council is considered always in session. Each council nation must have a permanent representative at headquarters in New York, so the council can meet on short notice. The Economic and Social Council works under the general guidance and control of the General Assembly.
It is composed of 54 member nations that serve 3-year terms. Eighteen are elected per year. There are no permanent members. But it has been customary for the nations of major economic importance, such as the United States and the Russian Federation, to be re-elected.
The council deals with major economic and social concerns. These include economic development, land reform, and control of narcotics. The council also coordinates the policies and activities of the United Nations and the various specialized agencies. The Trusteeship Council was established to help the General Assembly supervise the administration of territories placed under trusteeship. These territories were primarily former colonies of European nations.
All the territories originally placed under United Nations trusteeship are now independent. The council is composed of the five permanent members of the Security Council. It meets as circumstances demand. It is composed of 15 judges. They are elected to 9-year terms by the General Assembly and the Security Council. The judges are chosen based on their qualifications rather than their nationalities.
However, no nation may have more than one judge on the court at any given time. The court has two major jobs. It settles disputes submitted by nations for final decision.
And it gives advice to other UN organs and agencies. Its advisory opinions do not have to be accepted. But they carry great weight. In disputes submitted to the court, however, its judgments are supposed to be followed by all the parties.
The secretary-general heads up the Secretariat, the administrative organ of the UN The secretary-general may bring any matter to the Security Council that seems likely to endanger international peace. The General Assembly and the Security Council, as well as the other two councils, may give the secretary-general special duties to perform. The secretary-general appoints the staff of the Secretariat under rules approved by the General Assembly. The staff must be international.
That is, each one of the many member nations must be represented. However, member governments are not allowed to influence the staff. In general the UN Charter emphasizes that the Secretariat of the United Nations should be an international civil service. It should serve the interests of the organization and only those interests. All Rights Reserved. Goodrich, Leland. Grolier Online, Goodrich, L. United Nations. The New Book of Knowledge. Create a List.
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Save Back. The Teacher Store Cart. Checkout Now. Grades 6—8 , 9— Principal Organs The organization operates through its six major organs.
The Security Council The UN Charter established a Security Council made up of the five nations that in were considered the most powerful in the world. The Trusteeship Council The Trusteeship Council was established to help the General Assembly supervise the administration of territories placed under trusteeship. The Secretariat The secretary-general heads up the Secretariat, the administrative organ of the UN The secretary-general may bring any matter to the Security Council that seems likely to endanger international peace.
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The Role of the UN General Assembly
The United Nations UN is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security , develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. Pursuant to the Charter, the organization's objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid , promoting sustainable development , and upholding international law. The organization's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted primarily of unarmed military observers and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles. Since then, 80 former colonies have gained independence, including 11 trust territories that had been monitored by the Trusteeship Council. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states.
Court” assumed its functions in The Court settles legal disputes only between nations and not between individuals, in accordance with international law.
History and Structure of the United Nations
The only body in which all UN members are represented, the General Assembly exercises deliberative, supervisory, financial, and elective functions relating to any matter within the scope of the UN Charter. Its primary role, however, is to discuss issues and make recommendations, though it has no power to enforce its resolutions or to compel state action. Other functions include admitting new members; selecting members of the Economic and Social Council, the nonpermanent members of the Security Council, and the Trusteeship Council; supervising the activities of the other UN organs, from which the Assembly receives reports; and participating in the election of judges to the International Court of Justice and the selection of the secretary-general. Decisions usually are reached by a simple majority vote.
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Basic Principles and Purposes of the United Nations
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