Smith and ragan instructional design pdf
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- About the Authors
- Instructional design
- Smith And Ragan Instructional Design Pdf
- Using Instructional Design Process to Improve Design and Development of Internet Interventions
Researchers and practitioners have spent the past 50 years attempting to define and create models of design with the intent to improve instruction. As part of a joint, inter-university project, Barson defined instructional development as the systematic process for improving instruction. Perhaps most interesting about this project and subsequent report is the caution that many different conditions influence learning, including the use of media, and that generalizing any sort of model would potentially be hazardous at best and disastrous at worst.
In the last module, we explored learning theories that describe where knowledge originates and how people learn. Although some institutions and organizations have dedicated instructional designers, the responsibility for designing instruction often falls to individual educators, thus it is important for educators to have an understanding of instructional design whether teaching face-to-face or online. Instructional design offers a systematic process for the planning of instruction and it can help educators create engaging and meaningful online learning experiences.
About the Authors
In the last module, we explored learning theories that describe where knowledge originates and how people learn. Although some institutions and organizations have dedicated instructional designers, the responsibility for designing instruction often falls to individual educators, thus it is important for educators to have an understanding of instructional design whether teaching face-to-face or online.
Instructional design offers a systematic process for the planning of instruction and it can help educators create engaging and meaningful online learning experiences. The goal of this module is to provide a general overview of instructional design and to examine commonly used models that are applicable to online teaching and learning.
The field of instructional design has a long history dating back to the Second World War when it was used in the development of training materials for military personnel Bullen, There are many definitions and conceptions of instructional design that have evolved over the years. He suggests that it is both a framework for learning and a quality process that helps to ensure the effective presentation of content and aids in supporting learner interaction.
In the video, Bullen describes instructional design as largely common sense for educators and explains that at the basic level, it involves alignment — alignment between learning outcomes, assessment, and learning activities. He suggests that instructional design forces educators to move from a content-centered perspective to a learning-centered perspective where learning outcomes, not content, guide the assessment and learning activities.
Bullen also notes that instructional design helps educators make appropriate media and technology choices, which is especially important in the online environment. Please take a few minutes to think about why instructional design is important in online teaching and learning, and consider how instructional design can be implemented within the online environment. McLeod explains that learning theories are descriptive in nature and aim to describe how people learn whereas instructional design models are more prescriptive and offer specific guidance on how to help people learn.
Essentially, instructional design involves translating abstract theories of learning into concrete plans for instruction. Once educators have an understanding of how learning works, instructional design models can help them to make decisions about how to support learning in specific educational contexts. McLeod provides examples of how learning theories inform the instructional design process. For example, Behaviourism supports the development instructional objectives, Cognitivism encourages task and learner analysis, and Constructivism promotes the consideration of context when planning instruction.
Similar to learning theories, educators and instructional designers do not typically rely on just one single theoretical framework to guide design; they often combine theories and use them as a foundation to design instruction that suits the needs of the learners and the instructional situation.
This article was written in when Connectivism had not yet been introduced as a learning theory. Given your understanding of Connectivism from the last module, how do you think an instructional designer might apply the theory of Connectivism?
Can you think of an example from your own teaching and learning context of how Connectivism might inform the instructional design? Instructional design models provide guidance on the processes that should be followed when designing instruction.
They offer systematic steps to follow, and serve as a blueprint for developing and delivering instructional materials. Instructional design models help educators to make sense of abstract learning theories and provide a common language and guiding tool for course design. There are a wide variety of instructional design models available that suggest different approaches to the design and development of instruction.
Similar to learning theories, each model has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of which to use will depend on which model works best for your educational context. The next section will provide an overview of three of the most popular instructional design models. Although this model was originally designed for the traditional face-to-face environment, it has been adapted for online teaching and learning and is used by many educators and instructional designers to guide the development of online instruction.
The ADDIE model is one of the most popular and widely used instructional design models, especially for the development of online instruction, and it is also heavily used for corporate e-learning and training. The ADDIE model represents an iterative process with evaluation leading to re-analysis and further design and development modifications.
There are a several variations of the ADDIE model, and many new instructional design models are based on the basic tenets of the model. Despite its popularity, the ADDIE model has been criticized as being too linear and inflexible, and lacking learner-instructor interaction and detail for application. Fink suggests a twelve-step instructional design process that consists of three main phases:.
The basic components of the Integrated Course Design model are the same as those found in other models of instructional design, including the backward design model that has been outlined by Wiggins, Wiggins and McTighe and the constructive alignment model from Biggs In all of these models, the learning outcomes that students are intended to achieve are defined first, and then the assessment and teaching methods are then designed to best achieve those outcomes.
This instructional design approach is learner-centred as the focus is on what the learner has to achieve and how the learner may best be engaged in order to achieve it Biggs, Please examine the online course that you are using for the Online Course Audit Assignment and share at least two examples demonstrating how elements of the course align with the instructional design models described in the module.
Explain either why you think the model was chosen, or how this design decision impacts the course. Instructional design provides a systematic process that can be used to create meaningful and effective instruction both face-to-face and online.
It builds on what we know about how people learn, and provides guidance on instructional strategies that help people learn and supports the process of developing and implementing those strategies. In most cases, no one model is used exclusively to design instruction. Similar to learning theories, most educators and instructional designers use a combination of models to inform their instructional design approaches and strategies. Following the steps of an instructional design model can help educators become more efficient in designing their instruction for a variety of different learning situations, including the online environment.
In the next module, we will explore the Integrated Course Design Model in more detail including identifying situational factors and writing learning outcomes.
Arshavskiy, M. Bates, A. In Teaching in a digital age: Guidelines for designing teaching and learning. Biggs, J. Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment. Higher Education , 32 3 , Constructive alignment in university teaching. Carleton University. Instructional design models [Video file]. Commonwealth of Learning. What is instructional design? Dee Fink, L. A self-directed guide to designing courses for significant learning pp.
The conditions of learning and theory of instruction 1st ed. Hess, A. Communications in Information Literacy , 10 2 , Mager, R. E Developing attitude toward learning 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Lake Publishing. McLeod, G.
Siemens, G. Instructional design in elearning. Smith, P. Instructional design 3rd ed. We acknowledge and give honour to the Secwepemc—the ancestral peoples who have lived here for thousands of years—upon whose traditional and unceded land Thompson Rivers University is located.
Open Search. Search Submit. Week 4: Instructional Design and the Online Environment. Overview On This Page. Describe the purpose of instructional design and its importance in the online environment. Discuss the relationship between learning theories and instructional design models. Where are we going? What are the goals of the instruction? How will we get there? What is the instructional strategy and the instructional medium? How will we know when we have arrived?
What should our tests look like? How will we evaluate and revise the instructional materials? Why do you think instructional design is important in online teaching and learning?
Gain attention of the students Inform students of the objectives Stimulate recall of prior learning Present the content Provide learner guidance Elicit performance Provide feedback Assess performance. Enhance retention and transfer to the job. Design — This phase involves planning and designing the learning objectives, assessment instruments, content, lesson planning, teaching and learning activities, and media selection.
Develop — This phase involves the creation of content and the loading of content into a web site or LMS. Implement — This phase involves the actual delivery of the course, including any prior training or briefing of learner support staff, and student assessment. Evaluate — This phases involves the collection of feedback in order to identify areas that require improvement and this feeds into the design, development and implementation of the next iteration of the course.
A self-directed guide to designing courses for significant learning. Initial Design Phase Step 1. Identify important situational factors Step 2. Identify important learning goals Step 3. Formulate appropriate feedback and assessment procedures Step 4. Make sure the primary components are integrated. Step 6. Create a thematic structure for the course Step 7.
Select or create an instructional strategy Step 8. Integrate the course structure and the instructional strategy to create an overall scheme of learning activities.
Instructional design ID , also known as instructional systems design ISD , is the practice of systematically designing, developing and delivering instructional products and experiences, both digital and physical, in a consistent and reliable fashion toward an efficient, effective, appealing, engaging and inspiring acquisition of knowledge. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology , though recently constructivism has influenced thinking in the field. There are also those who cite that, aside from behaviorist psychology, the origin of the concept could be traced back to systems engineering. The impact of each of these fields is difficult to quantify, however, it is argued that the language and the "look and feel" of the early forms of instructional design and their progeny were derived from this engineering discipline. The role of systems engineering in the early development of instructional design was demonstrated during World War II when a considerable amount of training materials for the military were developed based on the principles of instruction, learning, and human behavior.
Smith And Ragan Instructional Design Pdf
Given the wide reach and extensive capabilities of the Internet, it is increasingly being used to deliver comprehensive behavioral and mental health intervention and prevention programs. Their goals are to change user behavior, reduce unwanted complications or symptoms, and improve health status and health-related quality of life. Internet interventions have been found efficacious in addressing a wide range of behavioral and mental health problems, including insomnia, nicotine dependence, obesity, diabetes, depression, and anxiety. Despite the existence of many Internet-based interventions, there is little research to inform their design and development. A model for behavior change in Internet interventions has been published to help guide future Internet intervention development and to help predict and explain behavior changes and symptom improvement outcomes through the use of Internet interventions.
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What are the general characteristics of the learners? What are the goals that learners are expected to achieve? What are the characteristics of the learning environment?
Using Instructional Design Process to Improve Design and Development of Internet Interventions
This book is notable for its theory-based treatment of the instructional design process, including unusual depth in the design of instructional strategies. Its scope applies to both K and corporate settings, and it is particularly rich with examples and practice. A helpful Learning Resources Web site accompanies the book providing feedback for chapter exercises, job aids, presentations, and other helpful materials.
Furthermore, there is an effort to empower teachers and even students as designers of learning including environments and new pedagogies , and to support their reflection on their own practice as part of their professional development Hansen and Wasson ; Luckin et al. This is not a switch from an instructivist to a constructivist view nor from a teacher-centred to a student-centred paradigm. It is, rather, a different mind-set where the emphasis is on the goal i. Designing learning opportunities in a technology enhanced world builds on theories of human learning and cognition, opportunities provided by technology, and principles of instructional design. New technology both expands and challenges some instructional design principles by opening up new opportunities for distance collaboration, intelligent tutoring and support, seamless and ubiquitous learning and assessment technologies, and tools for thinking and thought.
Developed in the s, this training model provides a systematic, iterative process for determining training needs, designing instructional programs and materials, implementing these programs, and evaluating their effectiveness Gagne et al. This article discusses the background and evolution of the ADDIE process as well as its basic concepts. Efficient learning is based on the concept of sound instructional design What is Instructional Design, n. Instructional design has played an integral role in the education and corporate sectors since its inception. Despite advancements in technology used for education and learning, however, almost all instructional design models reflect the generic ADDIE process, developed in , with its phases of analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
Patricia L. She received her Ph. Smith is author of two books and numerous journal articles, technical reports, and chapters on computer-based instruction and instructional design. She has served as president of the Research and Theory Division and as a member of the board of directors of that division as well as the Division of Instructional Development now "Design and Development" of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Her primary areas of interest are instructional design, particularly the design of organizational strategies, design of print-based instruction, instructional feedback, and program evaluation. Tillman J. He received his Ph.