Design and construction of electric arc welding machine pdf

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design and construction of electric arc welding machine pdf

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Cables with damaged insulation or exposed bare conductors shall be replaced. Joining lengths of work and electrode cables shall be done by the use of connecting means specifically intended for the purpose. The connecting means shall have insulation adequate for the service conditions.

What is Arc Welding? - Definition and Process Types

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Elijah Olusegun. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Finally, I sincerely express my profound gratitude to everybody who has contributed one way or the other in making this project a reality. I give a big praise and worship to God, for seeing us through in this programme.

God bless you all. Arc welding of the two methods of electrical welding adopted in many engineering fields due to its reliability of the welded joints in comparison to riveted or bolted joints, is the fusion of two or more similar metallic materials by means of the heat generated by an electric energy.

Metal arc welding machine MAWM in its simplest forms is the equipment in an electric circuit used for generating the arc that is needed for arc welding. WeldingWelding is a metal joining process in which coalescence is obtained by heat and pressure. It may also be defined as a metallurgical bound accomplished by the attracting force between atoms. Welding Power SupplyA welding power supply is a device that provides an electric current to perform welding.

Welding usually requires high current over 80 amperes and it can need above 12, amperes in spot welding. Low current can also be used; welding two razor blades together at 5 amps with gas tungsten arc welding is a good example. A welding power supply can be as simple as a car battery and as sophisticated as a modern machine based on silicon controlled rectifier technology with additional logic to assist in the welding process.

The welding power for A. This means that the incoming voltage supply, which may be in the range of volts is stepped down between volts In the transformer, the A. Arc Welding Machine is also equipped with a current control regulator, it enable the operator to select the correct current Amp for the size of electrode being used. Power Supply DesignsThe welding power supplies most commonly seen can be categorized within the following types: Transformer, Generator and Alternator, Inverter etc.

The transformer type shall be considered in this project, because it is the least expensive among others 1. A rectifier converts the AC into DC on more expensive machines. This design typically allows the welder to select the output current by variously moving a primary winding closer or farther from a secondary winding, moving a magnetic shunt in and out of the core of the transformer, using a series saturating reactor with a variable saturating technique in series with the secondary current output, or by simply permitting the welder to select the output voltage from a set of taps on the transformer's secondary winding.

These transformer style machines are typically the least expensive. The trade against being the least expensive is that pure transformer designs are often bulky and massive because they operate at the utility mains frequency of 50 or 60 Hz.

Such low frequency transformers must have a high magnetizing inductance to avoid wasteful shunt currents. The transformer may also have significant leakage inductance for short circuit protection in the event of a welding rod becoming stuck to the work-piece.

The leakage inductance may be variable so the operator can set the output current. MotivationAlthough different rating of arc welding are in market e. This is what is motivating me in design and construction of variable welding machine so that it can be useful where they normally have either low or high voltage.

Relevant of the ProjectThe relevance of this project in Engineering is to join two or more metals together. Also, it is design to operate on single phase, V supply, using a Step down transformer and has relevance in domestic and industrial purposes such as construction of tanks, bridges and many other types of steel or metal work.

Objective of the ProjectWith reference to the project, design and construction of variable arc welding machine, which is designed to bring an end to many problems, encounter by Engineers in the practical field. With the help of arc welding machine, the problem of joining two or more metals together in constructional work is limited.

Scope and Limitation of the ProjectArc welding machine has different number of ranges depending on individual design and construction. The range can be of 1.

So this project is not the least or the highest range of the arc welding machine but certain factors has contributed to its limitation to this range. Among which are: financial problems, scarcity of materials, insufficient tools and equipment and stress. Despite the limitation and problems encountered, I believe this project will serve as stepping stone or guideline for any student or researcher who may wish to embark on this type of project.

Also improvement can still be made on this project in order to solve problem relating to welding. Competing welding processes such as resistance welding and oxyfuel welding were developed during this time as well; but both, especially the latter, faced stiff competition from arc welding especially after metal coverings known as flux for the electrode, to stabilize the arc and shield the base material from impurities, continued to be developed.

The Americans also became more accepting of the new technology when the process allowed them to repair their ships quickly after German attack in the New York Harbor at the beginning of the war. Arc welding was first applied to aircraft during the war as well, and some German airplane fuselages were constructed using this process.

In , the British shipbuilder Cammell Laird started construction of merchant ship, the Fullagar, with an entirely welded hull; she was launched in During the s, major advances were made in welding technology, including the introduction of automatic welding in which electrode wire was continuously fed. Shielding gas became a subject receiving much attention as scientists attempted to protect welds from the effects of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere.

Porosity and brittleness were the primary problems and the solutions that developed included the use of hydrogen, argon, and helium as welding atmospheres. During the following decade, further advances allowed for the welding of reactive metals such as aluminum and magnesium.

This, in conjunction with developments in automatic welding, alternating current, and fluxes fed a major expansion of arc welding during the s and then during World War II. During the middle of the century, many new welding methods were invented. Submerged arc welding was invented in and continues to be popular today.

In a Russian, Konstantin Khrenov successfully implemented the first underwater electric arc welding. Gas tungsten arc welding, after decades of development, was finally perfected in and gas metal arc welding followed in , allowing for fast welding of non-ferrous materials but requiring expensive shielding gases. Using a consumable electrode and a carbon dioxide atmosphere as a shielding gas, it quickly became the most popular metal arc welding process. In , the fluxcored arc welding process debuted in which the self-shielded wire electrode could be used with automatic equipment, resulting in greatly increased welding speeds.

In that same year, plasma arc welding was invented. Electroslag welding was released in and was followed by its cousin, electrogas welding, in In this project, the area of concentration will be limited to Basic Design and construction of electric Arc welding machine: The literature Review, Code of Practice and Safety Precaution.

The Machine is specially designed to operate on a single phase, volts supply and it used the step-down Transformer. The Windings could be done with Copper or Aluminium or even both conductors. These conductors can be round or rectangular shape, depending on the type needed. The transformer consists of two windings, primary and secondary windings.

The primaryWinding is connected to the supply main single phase volts while the Secondary Winding is connected to the electrode holder and ground and it is through the secondary winding that the welding arc current flows. The welding arc current has a lower voltage and a higher amperage or current value than the Primary circuit. The development of arc welding was rapid and its applicable in modern industry for metal fabrication of endless variety of products has reached immense Proportion.

The oldest form of arc welding machine utilized only carbon electrode to establish an arc, and a metal welding rod being deposited there in. This method was followed in which one carbon electrode was employed and the arc was established between it and the work piece.

Fused metal was deposited by a metal rod. This process in the present day has limited use such that it's chiefly employed for the arc welding of copper base alloys such as copper bronze. This process may weld cast iron and galvanized steel.

Fabrication by welding has replaced many of large application for casting where it provides stronger, sounder, lighter structure less susceptible to damage by chock. Modern welding began just before the end of the last century 18 th Century with the development of method of generating local high temperature.

Although it is possible to make welds between certain metals without an increase in temperature, welding generally requires heat, and it is therefore heat source dominated technology.

Arc welding machine can be air-cooled, this is the case, where the whole unit is raised some distance from the ground level by a stand and the chassis ventilated or perforated for cross ventilation or the machine provided with a suitable ventilating fan.

Also, welding machine can be oil immersed. In this case the transformer is put inside an oil tank containing sufficient oil quantity. So as to aid in the reduction of heat generated in the course of welding. The ambient temperature of oils should be 85 0 C. The oil must certify some properties arc threat; it must not evaporate, conduct electricity in the presence of spark and must be light.

However, in this project copper conductor was used due to its numerous advantages. Among which is its high conductivity and durability. Also the transformer designed for this project is oil transformer. There are many applications of welding both for industrial and domestic applications such as in the construction of buildings, bridges, ships, pressure vessels, tanks, gas holders and many other types of steel work.

Based on the above, one would conclude that the design and construction of this project has importance in the life of the project executor.

An arc is created across the gap when the energized circuit and the electrode tip touches the work-piece and is withdrawn, yet still with in close contact. This heat melts both the base metal and the electrode, producing a pool of molten metal sometimes called a "Crater". The crater solidifies behind the electrode as it is moved along the joint. The result is a fusion bond. Basic Principle of Electric Arc WeldingElectric arc welding is a fusion welding in which a current of low voltage and high amperage is transmitted from the welding machine to a metal electrode holder and flexible cable know as the leads.

When the electrode is scratched on the workplace, sparks occur due to partial contacts made between the work piece and the electrode. In essence an electric circuit is established, then by separating the conductors i.

The principle can also be explained in another way. The welding is "closed" by striking the electrode on the work and withdrawing it slightly, an arc is formed. This contact is to enable a flow of current in the form of electrons take place after the initial high voltage has overcome the resistance to current flow sometime called ionization of the arc gap.

The arc causes the parent metal to melt or fuse.

Download The Design And Construction Of Electric Arc Welding Machine

The first arc welding method was developed in the 19th century, and it has become commercially significant within shipbuilding throughout II-World War. Nowadays it remains a significant process for vehicles as well as steel structure fabrication. This is one of the famous welding methods which are used for joining metals in industries. In this type of welding, the joint can be formed by melting the metal with the help of electricity. So due to this reason, it is named an electric arc. The main benefit of this welding is, a high-temperature can be easily developed for welding.

It is only powered from A. C power source for all welding. The unit is designed to operate on single phase v A. It is capable of operating from 25 Amps socket for most of its output range. The current drawn form the mains supply may exceed the 25 Amps, hence the unit must be provided with 30A switch fuse input as those provided for electric cookers, heaters etc.

Automation of arc welding

The output of the machine is designed in a way that it can be varied by adjusting the crank of the machines in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction ion in either to increase or decrease the output current respectively depending on the size of the material it is to be used on. The major component of the machine that carry out such function is the transformer. This paper focuses on the design and construction uction of the welding machine transformer.

Arc welding is a type of welding process using an electric arc to create heat to melt and join metals. A power supply creates an electric arc between a consumable or non-consumable electrode and the base material using either direct DC or alternating AC currents. Arc welding is a fusion welding process used to join metals. The arc can be either manually or mechanically guided along the line of the join, while the electrode either simply carries the current or conducts the current and melts into the weld pool at the same time to supply filler metal to the join.

The arc welding is a fusion welding process in which the welding heat is obtained from an electric arc struck between the work or base metal and an electrode. They can use either direct DC or alternating AC current, and consumable or non-consumable electrodes. The welding region is usually protected by some type of shielding gas, vapor, or slag.

What is Electric ARC Welding : Working Principle & Types


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