Acid and base balance pdf

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acid and base balance pdf

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Acid—base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to deviate out of the normal range 7. In the fetus , the normal range differs based on which umbilical vessel is sampled umbilical vein pH is normally 7. An excess of acid is called acidosis or acidemia and an excess in bases is called alkalosis or alkalemia. The process that causes the imbalance is classified based on the cause of the disturbance respiratory or metabolic and the direction of change in pH acidosis or alkalosis. This yields the following four basic processes:.

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The kidneys help maintain the acid—base balance by excreting hydrogen ions into the urine and reabsorbing bicarbonate from the urine. Urine testing is important because it can detect acid—base imbalances. For instance, uncontrolled diabetes results in highly acidic urine. If the diabetes remains uncontrolled, the kidneys could become over-stressed and malfunction, which could lead to coma or death. Within the human body, fluids such as blood must be maintained within the narrow range of 7. Outside that range, pH becomes incompatible with life; proteins are denatured and digested, enzymes lose their ability to function, and the body is unable to sustain itself.

Overview of Acid-Base Balance

An important property of blood is its degree of acidity or alkalinity. The acidity or alkalinity of any solution, including blood, is indicated on the pH scale. The pH scale, ranges from 0 strongly acidic to 14 strongly basic or alkaline. Blood is normally slightly basic, with a normal pH range of about 7. Usually the body maintains the pH of blood close to 7. A doctor evaluates a person's acid-base balance by measuring the pH and levels of carbon dioxide an acid and bicarbonate a base in the blood.

The lungs partially compensate for acidosis or alkalosis through increased or decreased excretion of CO 2 in a matter of minutes. The kidneys, however, are ultimately responsible for maintaining body pH within narrow limits. In carnivorous and omnivorous animals like man, metabolism produces an excess of acid. Carbohydrate metabolism, when completed aerobically, produces H 2 O and CO 2 which can be eliminated by the lungs. However, phosphoric acid is continually formed by metabolic oxidation of nucleoproteins and phospholipids, while sulfuric acid is formed by oxidation of protein. The Kidney in Acid-Base Balance.

Regulation of Acid-Base Balance

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The kidney is a homeostatic organ that varies the excretion of water, electrolytes, and other hydrophilic molecules to maintain constancy of the composition of the extracellular fluid ECF. This organ plays the most important role in the long-term regulation of blood pressure through its control of ECF volume. The paired kidneys are bean-shaped retroperitoneal organs, each about cm long and located on the posterior abdominal wall.

The Kidney in Acid-Base Balance

25.4D: The Role of the Kidneys in Acid-Base Balance

By convention, scientists refer to hydrogen ions and their concentration as if they were free in this state in liquid water. The pH is calculated as the negative of the base 10 logarithm of this concentration:. Human cells and blood each maintain near-neutral pH. The pH of a solution indicates its acidity or basicity alkalinity.

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Arterial blood gas analysis is a test most frequently performed on critically ill patients in the emergency room, recovery room and intensive care unit by nursing staff. One of the main purposes of the test is assessment of acid-base status, which is often disturbed during critical illness. This article is intended to provide an introduction to the physiology of acid-base balance and the many pathological conditions that are associated with disturbance of that balance. It provides nurses and other health professionals, who are less than familiar with the topic, with a basis for understanding how the results of arterial blood gas analysis are applied in the investigation of patients whose acid-base balance is disturbed. Normal cell metabolism depends on the maintenance of blood pH within very narrow limits 7. Even relatively mild excursions outside this normal pH range can have deleterious effects, including reduced oxygen delivery to tissues, electrolyte disturbances and changes in heart muscle contractility; survival is rare if blood pH falls below 6.

Your blood needs the right balance of acidic and basic alkaline compounds to function properly. This is called the acid-base balance. Your kidneys and lungs work to maintain the acid-base balance. Even slight variations from the normal range can have significant effects on your vital organs. Acid and alkaline levels are measured on a pH scale. An increase in acidity causes pH levels to fall. An increase in alkaline causes pH levels to rise.

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