Introduction to computers and information technology pearson pdf
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- ISBN 13: 9781323144183
- Introduction to Computers and Information Technology, 2nd edition
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery.
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A short summary of this paper. The characteristics of computers that makes them an essential part of every technology. A computer is an electronic machine, devised for performing calculations and controlling operations that can be expressed either in logical or numerical terms. In simple terms, a computer is an electronic device that performs diverse operations with the help of instructions to process the information in order to achieve the desired results.
Computer application extends to cover huge area including education, industries, government, medicine, scientific research etc. A computer is one of the most influential forces available in modern times. Due to its memory, high speed and perfection, its application can be extended to almost infinite levels.
Millions of complex calculations can be done in mere fraction of time. Difficult decisions can be made with accuracy for comparatively little cost. Computers are widely seen as instruments for future progress and as tools to achieve substantiality by way of improved access to information by means of video conferencing and e- mail. Indeed computers have left such on impression on modern civilization that we call this era as the information age. What may take days for manual calculations may take only a few hours for computers to perform.
Inside the computer the information signal travels at incredible electronic speed. These large volumes of storage occupy much lesser space compared to paper documents and this aspect of computers makes them more powerful. In fact, this quality of the computers make them indispensable in various fields such as Scientific Research, Space Research, Weather Predictions and many other areas where precision of a high order is required.
The accuracy of the computer is best achieved by programming them in the most efficient manner. For example, they are capable of performing wide ranging tasks such as construction of a payroll, inventory management in a factory, hotel billing, hospital management, banking applications and any imaginable task in every walk of life. Once a programming logic is initiated the computer performs repeated operations without human interventions until program completion.
If a large number of calculations say million calculations are to be performed the resultant output will remain exactly the same even if operations are repeated any number of times. But when a human being is asked to do the same job this consistency cannot be achieved. They correct and modify the parameters automatically, giving suitable signals. They give formatted results with high degree of precisions.
Check Your Progress 1 Bring out any three characteristics of computer Notes: a Write your answer in the space given below b Check your answer with the one given at the end of this Lesson pp. Slowly these lines changed to numbers. To do calculation on numbers he started inventing machines. Abacus Abacus was probably the earliest of counting devices. It consists of rectangular wooden frame with two compartments and beads sliding along the steel wires for counting.
Multiplication and divisions are done using repeated additions and subtractions. Even today in which cross strings are fixed.
Beads are inserted on to the strings. There are a number of rows of beads. The use of logarithms enabled him to transform multiplications and division problems of addition and subtractions. In the beginning he called logarithms as artificial numbers. But later he named them logarithms. Napier also invented a computing device consisting of sticks with numbers carved on them.
These sticks are called bones as they were made of bones. These bones helped a lot in multiplication involving large numbers. Slide rule As the name indicates, the slide rule has one scale sliding within the other. Suppose you want to add two numbers 3 and 5, set 3 on the fixed scale and slide the moving scale.
This is the sum of 3 and 5. The process of reading could be quick if you are trained in the use of slide rule. He was the son of tax collector who had to do lot of calculations as part of his job. Blaise Pascal wanted to make his job easier by inventing a calculator. You might be familiar with gear wheels in use in your bicycle which meshes with a driving chain. He fixed them together so that one wheel drives the other. When the wheel corresponding to units position rotated by ten teeth, it drove the wheel corresponding to the next higher position by one tooth.
Thus one could make calculations. Pascal provided dials, which indicated numbers stored on each wheel. Other people also made a number of such calculators. Computer scientists honoured Pascal by naming a programming language Pascal after him. Babbage difference and analytical engines.
Babbage, a British National and the son of a wealthy banker wanted to correct the errors in the logarithm tables being used during his time. The royal Astronomical society awarded a gold medal to him for his invention and granted a large sum of money to carry out further work.
The analytical Engine was supposed to be very accurate. So it needed lot of parts made with precision. Babbage could not make such parts. Since he was about years ahead in his ideas, he could not get parts needed for his machine.
This is because there were no tools to make such precision parts. He did lot of work related to making precision parts and spend all the grants and lot of his money too but failed in his attempt to make a machine.
He ultimately died as a frustrated man. She was a mathematician. She studied the works of Babbage and wrote about them. This information helps the Government in planning for the future, Sometimes you find enumerators people taking such details coming to your house with forms to collect such details.
In the United States a census was carried out in and the U S Government was processing the census data. Even as this was going on, the next census was due in To process the census of fast, the Government announced a competition. He could complete the job within three years, achieving a speedup of about three times.
The machine laid the foundation for the development of electronic digital computer. In this computer, each time a program was changed, the wiring had to be completely rearranged. It weighed 30 tons, contained 18, vacuum tubes and occupied a space of 30 50 feet. EDSAC was the first computer to operate on the stored program concept. This was purchased by US bureau of Census. It performs the system functions such as input, processing, output, storage and control. A computer system consists of the following components: 1.
Hardware 2. Software 3. Human ware 4. Firmware 5. Bridge ware 1. Hardware The physical components of the computer, such as electrical, electronics and mechanical unit are known as the hardware of the computer. That is, the input units, output units and CPU are called hardware.
Thus hardware is the equipment involved in the function of a computer. It consists of the components that can be physically handled. The function of these components is typically divided into three main categories: input, output, and storage. Components in these categories connect to microprocessors, output and storage. Components in these categories connect to microprocessors, specifically, the computer's central processing unit CPU , the electronic circuitry that provides the computational ability and control of the computer, via wires or circuitry called a bus.
The user issues instructions and the CPU acts in accordance with the instructions. The sets of instructions, which control the sequence of operations, are known as programs, and collectively programs are called software.
The software can be broadly classified into two types. They are: a. System Software b.
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Proceed to Checkout. Introduction to Computers and Information Technology , Second Edition teaches essential computer technology concepts and skills. This text helps student build a concrete understanding of how computers work and how various types of computing devices and accessories are used in school, work, and at home. The content aligns with the IC3 GS5 and Spark objectives for students interested in achieving certification. Computing Fundamentals explores hardware and software basics, input and output devices, storage, and operating systems. It also provides an introduction to programming. Students learn how computers work, how to identify and use peripherals and storage devices, and how to use operating systems and utility programs.
We really do. So naturally we do our best to offer a wide arrray of Information and Communications Technology ITC topics including: software, hardware, programming, engineering, networks, databases, tech support, and more. The course is delivered through a standard web browser and works great on any desktop, laptop, tablet, or mobile phone with Internet connection. This is technically classified as an ESP English for Specific Purposes course, teaching hundreds of relevant vocabulary terms. Our content is written by Information Technology professionals and edited by certified EFL instructors. This is not a re-hashed general purpose English course. Students require at least B1 lower-intermediate or higher on the CEFR scale to succeed in this course.
View larger cover. Computers have become indispensable in our everyday life. We use them as a text editor, communication system, an interactive database and decision-support system. Unlike many books on computer fundamentals, this one discusses most ideas behind a computer in a simple and straightforward manner. The content of this book has been extensively researched.
philsandlin.org PDFPCJS. Introduction to Computers and Information Technology teaches essential computer.
ISBN 13: 9781323144183
Explore a preview version of Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition right now. Through a series of recent breakthroughs, deep learning has boosted the entire field of machine learning. This newly revised text retains its gentle approach to introducing MIS students to fundamental computer hardware, ….
Introduction to Computers and Information Technology, 2nd edition
Course Synopsis: Fundamental concept of Information technology. Goal: This course introduces fundamental concepts of Information Technology and computer science. Computers in Business and Industry, Computers in education, training, Computers in Entertainment, science, medicine and Engineering.