History of internet and world wide web pdf
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- Mathematics and the World Wide Web
- A Brief History of the Internet
- World-Wide Web
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The Internet started in the s as a way for government researchers to share information. Computers in the '60s were large and immobile and in order to make use of information stored in any one computer, one had to either travel to the site of the computer or have magnetic computer tapes sent through the conventional postal system. Another catalyst in the formation of the Internet was the heating up of the Cold War. The Soviet Union's launch of the Sputnik satellite spurred the U. Defense Department to consider ways information could still be disseminated even after a nuclear attack.
Mathematics and the World Wide Web
You are reading in A short history of the internet. The origins of the internet are rooted in the USA of the s. Both superpowers were in possession of deadly nuclear weapons, and people lived in fear of long-range surprise attacks.
The US realised it needed a communications system that could not be affected by a Soviet nuclear attack. At this time, computers were large, expensive machines exclusively used by military scientists and university staff. These machines were powerful but limited in numbers, and researchers grew increasingly frustrated: they required access to the technology, but had to travel great distances to use it.
The difficulty of using such systems led various scientists, engineers and organisations to research the possibility of a large-scale computer network.
No one person invented the internet. When networking technology was first developed, a number of scientists and engineers brought their research together to create the ARPANET. In Baran proposed a communication network with no central command point.
If one point was destroyed, all surviving points would still be able to communicate with each other. He called this a distributed network. Chief scientist at ARPA, responsible for developing computer networks. An American scientist who worked towards the creation of a distributed network alongside Lawrence Roberts. A British scientist who, at the same time as Roberts and Kleinrock, was developing similar technology at the National Physical Laboratory in Middlesex.
When asked to explain my role in the creation of the internet, I generally use the example of a city. I helped to build the roads—the infrastructure that gets things from point A to point B. Inventing the World Wide Web involved my growing realisation that there was a power in arranging ideas in an unconstrained, weblike way.
And that awareness came to me through precisely that kind of process. The Web arose as the answer to an open challenge, through the swirling together of influences, ideas, and realisations from many sides. This experimental link used a telephone line with an acoustically coupled modem, and transferred digital data using packets. When the first packet-switching network was developed, Leonard Kleinrock was the first person to use it to send a message.
A second attempt proved successful and more messages were exchanged between the two sites. President Dwight D. Their aim was to help American military technology stay ahead of its enemies and prevent surprises, such as the launch of the satellite Sputnik 1, happening again. Roberts was the first person to connect two computers.
By , 30 academic, military and research institutions had joined the network, connecting locations including Hawaii, Norway and the UK. The term is used to describe a set of protocols that govern how data moves through a network. After the creation of ARPANET, more networks of computers began to join the network, and the need arose for an agreed set of rules for handling data. The address on the datagram can be read by any computer, but only the final host machine can open the envelope and read the message inside.
Kahn and Cerf called this method transmission-control protocol TCP. Every device connected to the internet is given a unique IP number. Known as an IP address, the number can be used to find the location of any internet-connected device in the world. In the early s, cheaper technology and the appearance of desktop computers allowed the rapid development of local area networks LANs. An increase in the amount of computers on the network made it difficult to keep track of all the different IP addresses.
It was one of the innovations that paved the way for the World Wide Web. As the network increased in popularity and scope, users quickly realised the potential of the network as a tool for sending messages between different ARPANET computers.
Ray Tomlinson , an American computer programmer, is responsible for electronic mail as we know it today. Early email users sent personal messages and began mailing lists on specific topics. The development of email showed how the network had transformed. Rather than a way of accessing expensive computing power, it had started to become a place to communicate, gossip and make friends. From the s onwards, the home computer industry grew exponentially.
Computers were embedded with the rhetoric of the future and learning, but in most cases this meant learning to program so that people could actually make the technology do something, such as play games. Between and , the network grew from 2, hosts to 30, People were now using the internet to send messages to each other, read news and swap files. However, advanced knowledge of computing was still needed to dial in to the system and use it effectively, and there was still no agreement on the way that documents on the network were formatted.
The internet needed to be easier to use. An answer to the problem appeared in when a British computer scientist named Tim Berners-Lee submitted a proposal to his employer, CERN, the international particle-research laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland.
The launch of the Mosaic browser in opened up the web to a new audience of non-academics, and people started to discover how easy it was to create their own HTML web pages. Consequently, the number of websites grew from in to over , at the start of By the internet and the World Wide Web were established phenomena: Netscape Navigator, which was the most popular browser at the time, had around 10 million global users.
The internet is the networking infrastructure that connects devices together, while the World Wide Web is a way of accessing information through the medium of the internet. Berners-Lee also created a piece of software that could present HTML documents in an easy-to-read format. On 6 August the code to create more web pages and the software to view them was made freely available on the internet.
Computer enthusiasts around the world began setting up their own websites. The dream behind the Web is of a common information space in which we communicate by sharing information. Its universality is essential: the fact that a hypertext link can point to anything, be it personal, local or global, be it draft or highly polished. Tim Berners-Lee was the first to create a piece of software that could present HTML documents in an easy-to-read format. Mosaic was also the first browser to display images next to text, rather than in a separate window.
They led the company to create Netscape Navigator, a widely used internet browser that at the time was faster and more sophisticated than any of the competition. By , Navigator had around 10 million global users. The enormous excitement surrounding the internet led to a massive boom in new technology shares between and Investors in the stock market began to believe the hype and threw themselves into a frenzy of activity.
The internet was thought to be central to economic growth, while share prices implied that new online companies carried the seeds for expansion.
This led in turn to a feverish level of investment and unrealistic expectations about rates of return. We are riding the early waves of a year run of a greatly expanding economy that will do much to solve seemingly intractable problems like poverty and to ease tensions throughout the world. Venture capitalists flourished and many companies were founded on dubious business plans.
The most notorious of these was the high fashion online retailer Boo. However, despite their failure, such businesses helped cause a fundamental transformation and left an important legacy. Many investors lost money, but they also helped to finance the new system and lay the groundwork for future success in ecommerce. Read about the first experiments in digital image technology—which took place longer ago than you might think.
The origins of the internet The origins of the internet are rooted in the USA of the s. The Elliott-NRDC was one of the first electronic computers, developed by British electrical company Elliott Brothers in when machines of this type could span 4 metres in length and weigh over a ton.
Who invented the internet? What is packet switching? Packet switching is the basis on which the internet still works today.
Early home computers From the s onwards, the home computer industry grew exponentially. Commodore 64 microcomputer, —85 Science Museum Group Collection. More information about collection object. How is the World Wide Web different from the internet? Tim Berners-Lee The introduction of web browsers Tim Berners-Lee was the first to create a piece of software that could present HTML documents in an easy-to-read format.
More objects and stories. The first digital photos, from Victorian technology to the internet Read about the first experiments in digital image technology—which took place longer ago than you might think. Computing Category:.
Investigate the development of calculating, computing and data processing technology. Yorkshire Games Festival Category: Online event. TBC A festival celebrating videogames, with special guests, workshops and fun-packed activities for gamers of all ages.
A Brief History of the Internet
Regardless of whether you grew up with computers or were introduced to them in adulthood, it is difficult now to imagine a world in which the internet does not exist. We rely on the internet to manage our money, search for jobs, represent ourselves professionally, and keep in contact with loved ones across the country or even across the world. We use the internet to research, to learn, and to enable ourselves to complete projects we would not know how to do without looking up instructions. Businesses use the internet to collaborate across offices and even across the hall. Financial transactions are handled in seconds.
You are reading in A short history of the internet. The origins of the internet are rooted in the USA of the s. Both superpowers were in possession of deadly nuclear weapons, and people lived in fear of long-range surprise attacks. The US realised it needed a communications system that could not be affected by a Soviet nuclear attack. At this time, computers were large, expensive machines exclusively used by military scientists and university staff. These machines were powerful but limited in numbers, and researchers grew increasingly frustrated: they required access to the technology, but had to travel great distances to use it.
The Web gives users access to a vast array of documents that are connected to each other by means of hypertext or hypermedia links—i. Hypertext allows the user to select a word or phrase from text and thereby access other documents that contain additional information pertaining to that word or phrase. Hypermedia documents feature links to images, sounds, animations, and movies. Browser software allows users to view the retrieved documents. Their text-based Web browser was made available for general release in January
Credit for the initial concept that developed into the World Wide Web is typically given to Leonard Kleinrock. Licklider, the first director of the Information Processing Technology Office IPTO , provided the backbone for the ubiquitous stream of emails, media, Facebook postings and tweets that are now shared online every day. Here, then, is a brief history of the Internet:. The precursor to the Internet was jumpstarted in the early days of computing history, in with the U.
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Posted November 22, by Jefferson Online. The internet has become a vital part of the modern world, inseparable from daily life and routines. From simple computer networks to global interconnectivity and instantaneous wireless communications, the rapid and dramatic evolution of the internet can help with understanding the changing nature of technology and communications. In , MIT computer scientist J. Licklider comes up with the idea for a global computer network. He later shares his idea with colleagues at the U.
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Next Crossroad of World Wide Web History. Web as a NextStep of PC Revolution from Steven P. Jobs to Tim Berners-Lee. Chapter 4. Birth of.
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