General knowledge in science and technology pdf
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General Knowledge questions and answers from General science. GK questions from Physics,Chemistry and Biology. Ans: Pegasus. This is the first and only satellite.
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Also see Rosenberg, M. From astronomy to industry From astronomy to the aerospace sector From astronomy to the energy sector. Astronomy and medicine Astronomy in everyday life Astronomy and international collaboration Summary References. Throughout History humans have looked to the sky to navigate the vast oceans, to decide when to plant their crops and to answer questions of where we came from and how we got here.
It is a discipline that opens our eyes, gives context to our place in the Universe and that can reshape how we see the world. When Copernicus claimed that Earth was not the centre of the Universe, it triggered a revolution. A revolution through which religion, science, and society had to adapt to this new world view.
Astronomy has always had a significant impact on our world view. Early cultures identified celestial objects with the gods and took their movements across the sky as prophecies of what was to come. Take, for example, the names of the constellations: Andromeda, the chained maiden of Greek mythology, or Perseus, the demi-god who saved her.
Now, as our understanding of the world progresses, we find ourselves and our view of the world even more entwined with the stars. The discovery that the basic elements that we find in stars, and the gas and dust around them, are the same elements that make up our bodies has further deepened the connection between us and the cosmos.
There are still many unanswered questions in astronomy. Pursuing these questions is a fundamental part of being human, yet in today's world it has become increasingly important to be able to justify the pursuit of the answers. The difficulties in describing the importance of astronomy, and fundamental research in general, are well summarized by the following quote:. Transferring knowledge is also easy. But making new knowledge is neither easy nor profitable in the short term.
Fundamental research proves profitable in the long run, and, as importantly, it is a force that enriches the culture of any society with reason and basic truth. Although we live in a world faced with the many immediate problems of hunger, poverty, energy and global warming, we argue that astronomy has long term benefits that are equally as important to a civilized society.
Several studies see below have told us that investing in science education, research and technology provides a great return — not only economically, but culturally and indirectly for the population in general — and has helped countries to face and overcome crises.
The scientific and technological development of a country or region is closely linked to its human development index — a statistic that is a measure of life expectancy, education and income Truman, Robert Aitken, director of Lick Observatory, shows us that even in there was a need to justify our science, in his paper entitled The Use of Astronomy Aitken, Astronomy and related fields are at the forefront of science and technology; answering fundamental questions and driving innovation.
A wealth of examples — many of which are outlined below — show how the study of astronomy contributes to technology, economy and society by constantly pushing for instruments, processes and software that are beyond our current capabilities.
The fruits of scientific and technological development in astronomy, especially in areas such as optics and electronics, have become essential to our day-to-day life, with applications such as personal computers, communication satellites, mobile phones, Global Positioning Systems , solar panels and Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI scanners.
Although the study of astronomy has provided a wealth of tangible, monetary and technological gains, perhaps the most important aspect of astronomy is not one of economical measure. Astronomy has and continues to revolutionize our thinking on a worldwide scale. In the past, astronomy has been used to measure time, mark the seasons, and navigate the vast oceans.
It inspires us with beautiful images and promises answers to the big questions. It acts as a window into the immense size and complexity of space, putting Earth into perspective and promoting global citizenship and pride in our home planet.
On a more pressing level, astronomy helps us study how to prolong the survival of our species. Only the study of the Sun and other stars can help us to understand these processes in their entirety.
In addition, mapping the movement of all the objects in our Solar System, allows us to predict the potential threats to our planet from space. Such events could cause major changes to our world, as was clearly demonstrated by the meteorite impact in Chelyabinsk , Russia in On a personal level, teaching astronomy to our youth is also of great value.
It has been proven that pupils who engage in astronomy-related educational activities at a primary or secondary school are more likely to pursue careers in science and technology, and to keep up to date with scientific discoveries National Research Council, This does not just benefit the field of astronomy, but reaches across other scientific disciplines.
Astronomy is one of the few scientific fields that interacts directly with society. Not only transcending borders, but actively promoting collaborations around the world. In the following paper, we outline the tangible aspects of what astronomy has contributed to various fields. Some of the most useful examples of technology transfer between astronomy and industry include advances in imaging and communications.
For example, a film called Kodak Technical Pan is used extensively by medical and industrial spectroscopists, industrial photographers, and artists, and was originally created so that solar astronomers could record the changes in the surface structure of the Sun.
In addition, the development of Technical Pan — again driven by the requirements of astronomers — was used for several decades until it was discontinued to detect diseased crops and forests, in dentistry and medical diagnosis, and for probing layers of paintings to reveal forgeries National Research Council, In Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for the development of another device that would be widely used in industry.
The sensors for image capture developed for astronomical images, known as Charge Coupled Devices CCDs , were first used in astronomy in In the realm of communication, radio astronomy has provided a wealth of useful tools, devices, and data-processing methods. Many successful communications companies were originally founded by radio astronomers. The computer language FORTH was originally created to be used by the Kitt Peak foot telescope and went on to provide the basis for a highly profitable company Forth Inc.
It is now being used by FedEx worldwide for its tracking services. Some other examples of technology transfer between astronomy and industry are listed below National Research Council, :.
The first patents for techniques to detect gravitational radiation — produced when massive bodies accelerate — have been acquired by a company to help them determine the gravitational stability of underground oil reservoirs. Schuler, M. The aerospace sector shares most of its technology with astronomy — specifically in telescope and instrument hardware, imaging, and image-processing techniques.
Since the development of space-based telescopes, information acquisition for defence has shifted from using ground-based to aerial and space-based, techniques. Defence satellites are essentially telescopes pointed towards Earth and require identical technology and hardware to those used in their astronomical counterparts.
In addition, processing satellite images uses the same software and processes as astronomical images. Some specific examples of astronomical developments used in defence are given below National Research Council, :.
Observations of stars and models of stellar atmospheres are used to differentiate between rocket plumes and cosmic objects. The same method is now being studied for use in early warning systems.
Astronomers developed a solar-blind photon counter — a device which can measure the particles of light from a source, during the day, without being overwhelmed by the particles coming from the Sun.
This is now used to detect ultraviolet UV photons coming from the exhaust of a missile, allowing for a virtually false-alarm-free UV missile warning system. The same technology can also be used to detect toxic gases. Astronomical methods can be used to find new fossil fuels as well as to evaluate the possibility of new renewable energy sources National Research Council, :. Two oil companies, Texaco and BP , use IDL to analyse core samples around oil fields as well as for general petroleum research.
An Australian company, called Ingenero , has created solar radiation collectors to harness the power of the Sun for energy on Earth. They have created collectors up to 16 metres in diameter, which is only possible with the use of a graphite composite material developed for an orbiting telescope array. Technology designed to image X-rays in X-ray telescopes — which have to be designed differently from visible-light telescopes — is now used to monitor plasma fusion.
If fusion — where two light atomic nuclei fuse to form a heavier nucleus — became possible to control, it could be the answer to safe, clean, energy. Astronomers struggle constantly to see objects that are ever dimmer and further away. Medicine struggles with similar issues: to see things that are obscured within the human body. Both disciplines require high-resolution, accurate and detailed images. Perhaps the most notable example of knowledge transfer between these two studies is the technique of aperture synthesis , developed by the radio astronomer and Nobel Laureate, Martin Ryle Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Along with these imaging techniques, astronomy has developed many programming languages that make image processing much easier, specifically IDL and IRAF.
These languages are widely used for medical applications Shasharina, Another important example of how astronomical research has contributed to the medical world is in the development of clean working areas. The cleanroom protocols, air filters, and bunny suits that were developed to achieve this are now also used in hospitals and pharmaceutical labs Clark, A collaboration between a drug company and the Cambridge Automatic Plate Measuring Facility allows blood samples from leukaemia patients to be analysed faster and thus ensures more accurate changes in medication National Research Council, Radio astronomers developed a method that is now used as a non-invasive way to detect tumours.
Small thermal sensors initially developed to control telescope instrument temperatures are now used to control heating in neonatology units — units for the care of newborn babies National Research Council, A low-energy X-ray scanner developed by NASA is currently used for outpatient surgery, sports injuries, and in third-world clinics.
Looking through the fluid-filled, constantly moving eye of a living person is not that different from trying to observe astronomical objects through the turbulent atmosphere, and the same fundamental approach seems to work for both. Adaptive optics used in astronomy can be used for retinal imaging in living patients to study diseases such as macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa in their early stages.
Boston Micromachines Corporation There are many things that people encounter on an everyday basis that were derived from astronomical technologies. Perhaps the most commonly used astronomy-derived invention is the wireless local area network WLAN. This same method was applied to radio signals in general, specifically to those dedicated to strengthening computer networks, which is now an integral part of all WLAN implementations Hamaker et al.
Other technologies important to everyday life that were originally developed for astronomy are listed below National Research Council, :. In airports, a gas chromatograph — for separating and analysing compounds — designed for a Mars mission is used to survey baggage for drugs and explosives. A gamma-ray spectrometer originally used to analyse lunar soil is now used as a non-invasive way to probe structural weakening of historical buildings or to look behind fragile mosaics, such as in St.
More subtle than these contributions to technology is the contribution that astronomy has made to our view of time. The first calendars were based on the movement of the Moon and even the way that we define a second is due to astronomy. The atomic clock, developed in , was calibrated using astronomical Ephemeris Time — a former standard astronomical timescale adopted by the IAU in This led to the internationally agreed-upon re-definition of the second Markowitz et al.
These are all very tangible examples of the effect astronomy has had on our everyday lives, but astronomy also plays an important role in our culture. There are many books and magazines about astronomy for non-astronomers. Many non-astronomers also engaged with astronomy during the International Year of Astronomy IYA , the largest education and public outreach event in science.
The IYA reached upwards of eight hundred million people, through thousands of activities, in more than countries IAU,
Indian Science and Technology Quiz
Which one of the following States is a leading producer of solar energy in India? The name of India's first indigenous anti-radiation missile is - 1 Tandav 2 Trinetra 3 Saksham 4 Rudram. Enders 3 Robert B. Laughlin 4 Walter Kohn. Which of following utilises sunlight in a direct fashion?
Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods , and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science , the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics , ontology , and epistemology , for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth. Philosophy of science focuses on metaphysical, epistemic and semantic aspects of science. Ethical issues such as bioethics and scientific misconduct are often considered ethics or science studies rather than philosophy of science.
General Knowledge - Scientific Abbreviations
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics has received growing attention over the past decade, with calls both for greater emphasis on these fields and for improvements in curricula and instruction within and across them.
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