Caring a feminine approach to ethics and moral education pdf

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caring a feminine approach to ethics and moral education pdf

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Institutional ethics committees IECs in health care facilities now create moral policy, provide moral education, and consult with physicians and other health care workers.

Nel Noddings: Caring. A feminine approach to ethics & moral education

Noddings received a bachelor's degree in mathematics and physical science from Montclair State College in New Jersey , a master's degree in mathematics from Rutgers University , and a Ph. Nel Noddings worked in many areas of the education system. She spent seventeen years as an elementary and high school mathematics teacher and school administrator, before earning her PhD and beginning work as an academic in the fields of philosophy of education, theory of education and ethics , specifically moral education and ethics of care.

She became a member of the Stanford faculty in , and was the Jacks Professor of Child Education from until While at Stanford University she received awards for teaching excellence in , and , and was the associate dean or acting dean of the School of Education for four years. In she held the John W. She has been Lee L. Nel Noddings has 10 children, 39 grandchildren, and over 20 great- grandchildren, many of whom are highly educated and educators themselves.

In she lost her husband of over 60 years to cancer. Noddings' fruitful career was matched by an equally fruitful domestic life.

According to infed. She added, 'I like having pets and kids around'. Feminists, she commented, sometimes find it hard to admit such things matter to them. She has described her early educational experiences and her close relationships as key in her development of her philosophical position. Early relationships with caring teachers inspired her passion for her later work.

Colleague Michael Katz describes Noddings as "one of the most efficient people" he knows, a "consummate teacher-scholar," who lives according to the "do it now" philosophy and "never lets her status as a famous scholar and lecturer and author interfere with treating everyone with the same kindness, thoughtfulness, and consideration that she would expect people to show her, regardless of her status or position. Noddings' first sole-authored book Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education followed close on the publication of Carol Gilligan 's ground-breaking work in the ethics of care In a Different Voice.

While her work on ethics continued, with the publication of Women and Evil , and later works on moral education, most of her later publications have been on the philosophy of education and educational theory. Her most significant works in these areas have been Educating for Intelligent Belief or Unbelief and Philosophy of Education Besides contributing to philosophy, Noddings also works in the field of social psychology.

Noddings' contributions include the interpretation of scientific research into the roots of compassion, altruism, and peaceful human relationships. Nel Noddings' approach to ethics of care has been described as relational ethics because it prioritizes concern for relationships. Like Carol Gilligan, Noddings accepts that justice based approaches, which are supposed to be more masculine, are genuine alternatives to ethics of care.

However, unlike Gilligan, Noddings' believes that caring, 'rooted in receptivity, relatedness, and responsiveness' is a more basic and preferable approach to ethics Caring , 2. The key to understanding Noddings' ethics of care is to understand her notion of caring and ethical caring in particular.

Noddings believes that it would be a mistake to try to provide a systematic examination of the requirements for caring; nevertheless, she does suggest three requirements for caring Caring , She argues that the carer one-caring must exhibit engrossment and motivational displacement, and the person who is cared for cared-for must respond in some way to the caring , Noddings' term engrossment refers to thinking about someone in order to gain a greater understanding of him or her.

Engrossment is necessary for caring because an individual's personal and physical situation must be understood before the one-caring can determine the appropriateness of any action. It requires only the attention needed to come to understand the position of the other. Engrossment could not on its own constitute caring; someone could have a deep understanding of another person, yet act against that person's interests.

Motivational displacement prevents this from occurring. Motivational displacement occurs when the one-caring's behaviour is largely determined by the needs of the person for whom she is caring. On its own, motivational displacement would also be insufficient for ethical caring. For example, someone who acted primarily from a desire to accomplish something for another person, but failed to think carefully enough about that other person's needs failed to be correctly engrossed in the other , would fail to care.

Finally, Noddings believes that caring requires some form of recognition from the cared-for that the one-caring is, in fact, caring. When there is a recognition of and response to the caring by the person cared for, Noddings describes the caring as "completed in the other" , 4. Nel Noddings draws an important distinction between natural caring and ethical caring , Noddings distinguishes between acting because "I want" and acting because "I must". When I care for someone because "I want" to care, say I hug a friend who needs hugging in an act of love, Noddings claims that I am engaged in natural caring.

When I care for someone because "I must" care, say I hug an acquaintance who needs hugging in spite of my desire to escape that person's pain, according to Noddings, I am engaged in ethical caring. Ethical caring occurs when a person acts caringly out of a belief that caring is the appropriate way of relating to people.

When someone acts in a caring way because that person naturally cares for another, the caring is not ethical caring , Noddings' claims that ethical caring is based on, and so dependent on, natural caring , 83, fn 4. It is through experiencing others caring for them and naturally caring for others that people build what is called an "ethical ideal", an image of the kind of person they want to be. Noddings describes wrong actions in terms of "a diminishment of the ethical ideal" and "evil".

A person's ethical ideal is diminished when she either chooses or is forced to act in a way that rejects her internal call to care.

In effect, her image of the best person it is possible for her to be is altered in a way that lowers her ideal. According to Noddings, people and organizations can deliberately or carelessly contribute to the diminishment of others' ethical ideals. They may do this by teaching people not to care, or by placing them in conditions that prevent them from being able to care , A person is evil if, in spite of her ability to do otherwise, she either fails to personally care for someone, or prevents others from caring.

Noddings writes, "[when] one intentionally rejects the impulse to care and deliberately turns her back on the ethical, she is evil, and this evil cannot be redeemed" , This is referred to as "obligation". We just do care; no ethical effort is required.

Nel Noddings' ethics of care has been criticised by both feminists and those who favour more traditional, and allegedly masculine, approaches to ethics. In brief, feminists object that the one caring is, in effect, carrying out the traditional female role in life of giving while receiving little in return.

Those who accept more traditional approaches to ethics argue that the partiality shown to those closest to us in Noddings' theory is inappropriate. Noddings tends to use unequal relationships as a model for understanding caring.

Philosopher and feminist Sarah Lucia Hoagland argues that the relationships in question, such as parenting and teaching, are ideally relationships where caring is a transitory thing designed to foster the independence of the cared-for, and so end the unequal caring relationship. Unequal relationships, she writes, are ethically problematic, and so a poor model for an ethical theory.

Hoagland argues that on Noddings' account of ethical caring, the one-caring is placed in the role of the giver and the cared-for in the role of the taker. The one-caring is dominant, choosing what is good for the cared-for, but gives without receiving caring in return.

The cared-for is put in the position of being a dependent, with insufficient control over the nature of the caring.

Hoagland believes that such unequal relationships cannot be morally good. In education , the ethic of care speaks of obligation to do something right and a sense that we must do something right when others address us. We respond because we want to; either we love and respect those that address us or we have significant regard for them. In regards to education , caring refers to the relationship between student and teacher, not just the person who cares. In "Identifying Needs in Education" Noddings provides criteria for deciding whether a want should be recognized or treated as a need.

The overt or explicit curriculum in education is designed to meet the inferred needs of students, as they are those identified by teachers or individuals to improve the classroom learning environment. In the ethics of care philosophy, inferred needs are referred to as those that come from those not directly expressing the need.

Most needs identified by educators for learners are inferred needs because they are not being identified by the learners themselves. Expressed needs are difficult to assess and address in the classroom environment, as they are needs directly expressed by learners through behaviour or words. If expressed needs are not treated carefully, the individual might not feel cared for. Basic needs are defined as the most basic needs required to survive such as food, water and shelter.

Overwhelming needs cannot be met by the usual processes of schooling and include extreme instances such as abuse , neglect and illness. To help meet those overwhelming needs of students, particularly those in poor neighborhood, the ethic of care philosophy dictates that schools should be full-service institutions.

Medical and dental care, social services, childcare and parenting advice should be available on campus. People who are poor, perhaps homeless, without dependable transportation cannot afford to run all over town seeking such services, and often they don't know where to begin. Emotion has been aggravated by the rise of professions with their insistence on detachment, distance, cool appraisal and systematic procedures.

Concern for rational and professional functioning keeps emotion out of education , as it is supposed that real professionals do not allow themselves to feel controlled by their emotions and are forced to face problems with dispassionate rationality. The use of stories in teacher education could be powerful in dispelling these beliefs, as they illustrate how deeply experienced teachers feel about the inevitable difficulties that occur in the classroom.

In the ethic of care model, the aim of education is centered around happiness. Incorporating this component into education involves not only helping our students understand the components of happiness by allowing teachers and students to interact as a whole community [9] In regard to the education of the whole child, Noddings stated that, "We will not find the solution to problems of violence, alienation, ignorance, and unhappiness in increasing our security, imposing more tests, punishing schools for their failure to produce percent proficiency, or demanding that teachers be knowledgeable in the subjects they teach.

Instead, we must allow teachers and students to interact as whole persons, and we must develop policies that treat the school as a whole community. One criticism of Noddings' ethic of care, in regards to education, is that it advocates little importance to caring for oneself, except as a means to provide further care for others.

Hoaglard , p. Another criticism of Noddings' argument is that ethic of care may result not only in the exploitation of the caregiver, but also in a smothering paternalism.

As well, Goodin , p. Lastly, Grimshaw explains that it is important to consider that good care always entails an element of distance between individuals. Thus, a clear distance between the self and the individual that is being cared for needs to exist in order to keep the personal care of both individuals in mind. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nel Noddings. Philosophy portal. Retrieved Arizona State University.

Retrieved 2 May Categories : births Living people 20th-century American philosophers 20th-century American women writers 20th-century educational theorists 21st-century American non-fiction writers 21st-century American philosophers 21st-century American women writers American ethicists American feminist writers American women non-fiction writers American women philosophers Democratic education Feminist ethicists Feminist philosophers Montclair State University alumni Relational ethics Rutgers University alumni Stanford Graduate School of Education faculty Stanford University alumni.

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Ethics of care

Nel Noddings has made a significant contribution to our appreciation of education. In particular, her explorations of the ethics of care — and their relationship to schooling, welfare, and to learning and teaching within families and local communities came at an especially apposite moment. She has been able to demonstrate the significance of caring and relationship both as an educational goal and as a fundamental aspect of education. Her work has included analysis of caring and its place in ethics Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education — and ; an attempt to rethink evil from the perspective of women Women and Evil — and a series of books that have explored the implications of a concern for caring with education The Challenge to Care in Schools — ; Educating Moral People — ; Happiness and Education — Nel Noddings has also sought to encourage people to engage philosophically with education Philosophy of Education, Educating for Intelligent Belief or Unbelief — , and explored welfare policy if caring — a way of life learned in homes — is placed at its centre Starting at Home: Caring and Social Policy —

Noddings received a bachelor's degree in mathematics and physical science from Montclair State College in New Jersey , a master's degree in mathematics from Rutgers University , and a Ph. Nel Noddings worked in many areas of the education system. She spent seventeen years as an elementary and high school mathematics teacher and school administrator, before earning her PhD and beginning work as an academic in the fields of philosophy of education, theory of education and ethics , specifically moral education and ethics of care. She became a member of the Stanford faculty in , and was the Jacks Professor of Child Education from until While at Stanford University she received awards for teaching excellence in , and , and was the associate dean or acting dean of the School of Education for four years.

Noddings, Nel. Caring, a feminine approach to ethics and moral education. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Caring-Moral and ethical aspects.

Caring, a Feminine Approach to Ethics & Moral Education PDF allalaadimine

В одном ухе странная серьга, кажется, в виде черепа. - В Севилье есть панки и рокеры. Росио улыбнулась: - Todo bajo el sol.

 Постараюсь быть краткой, - улыбнулась Сьюзан Флетчер.  - Пожалуйста. Через десять минут Беккер уже сидел в буфете АНБ, жуя сдобную булку и запивая ее клюквенным соком, в обществе очаровательной руководительницы Отделения криптографии АНБ. Ему сразу же стало ясно, что высокое положение в тридцать восемь лет в АНБ нельзя получить за красивые глаза: Сьюзан Флетчер оказалась одной из умнейших женщин, каких ему только доводилось встречать.

Caring Feminine Approach Education Preface PDF 2f79ce302

Сьюзан смотрела на Стратмора, не веря своим ушам. У нее возникло ощущение, что она разговаривает с абсолютно незнакомым человеком. Коммандер послал ее жениха, преподавателя, с заданием от АНБ и даже не потрудился сообщить директору о самом серьезном кризисе в истории агентства.

At the library

На коммутатор поступает сообщение. Фонтейн тотчас повернулся к стене-экрану. Пятнадцать секунд спустя экран ожил. Сначала изображение на экране было смутным, точно смазанным сильным снегопадом, но постепенно оно становилось все четче и четче. Это была цифровая мультимедийная трансляция - всего пять кадров в секунду. На экране появились двое мужчин: один бледный, коротко стриженный, другой - светловолосый, с типично американской внешностью. Они сидели перед камерой наподобие телеведущих, ожидающих момента выхода в эфир.

Nel Noddings

 Что вы имеете в виду. - Да он смеялся над нами. Это же анаграмма.


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