History of science and technology timeline pdf

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history of science and technology timeline pdf

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Following the rise of Islam in the seventh century C. Muslim rulers promoted the translation of Greek philosophy and science texts, and then encouraged further scientific exploration in numerous fields, among them mathematics, astronomy, medicine, pharmacology, optics, chemistry, botany, philosophy, and physics. In mathematics, Muslim scholars introduced the use of zero, solutions to quadratic equations -- even the Arabic word "algebra.

History of technology , the development over time of systematic techniques for making and doing things. By the early 20th century the term embraced a growing range of means, processes, and ideas in addition to tools and machines. A highly compressed account of the history of technology such as this one must adopt a rigorous methodological pattern if it is to do justice to the subject without grossly distorting it one way or another. The plan followed in the present article is primarily chronological, tracing the development of technology through phases that succeed each other in time.

The Scientific Revolution (1550-1700)

The history of science and technology HST is a field of history that examines how the understanding of the natural world science and the ability to manipulate it technology have changed over the millennia and centuries. This academic discipline also studies the cultural, economic, and political impacts of scientific innovation. Histories of science were originally written by practicing and retired scientists, starting primarily with William Whewell , as a way to communicate the virtues of science to the public. In the early s, after a famous paper given by the Soviet historian Boris Hessen , was focused into looking at the ways in which scientific practices were allied with the needs and motivations of their context. In the s, especially in the wake of the work done by Thomas Kuhn , the discipline began to serve a very different function, and began to be used as a way to critically examine the scientific enterprise.

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In a wide array of courses, STSC students learn to think critically about questions such as: Why does modern science look the way it does? How and why do particular technologies and technological systems emerge, expand and become obsolete? How do science and technology sometimes exacerbate race, gender and class inequalities, and how might they be changed to reduce them? How do science and technology shape society, and how does society shape science and technology? The STSC major has an interdisciplinary methodology.

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Wind, water, and animal power, with their limitations of place and capacity, were supplemented and then replaced by the steam engine, which went on to power the factories of the industrial revolution. The railroad made it possible to move things and people quickly over great distances. The telegraph and, later, the telephone carried communications across the countryside.

The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is one of the categories of world history. Technology can refer to methods ranging from as simple as stone tools to the complex genetic engineering and information technology that has emerged since the s. The term technology comes from the Greek word techne, meaning art and craft, and the word logos, meaning word and speech. It was first used to describe applied arts, but it is now used to describe advancements and changes which affect the environment around us. New knowledge has enabled people to create new things, and conversely, many scientific endeavors are made possible by technologies which assist humans in traveling to places they could not previously reach, and by scientific instruments by which we study nature in more detail than our natural senses allow.

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY MAJOR

From the discovery of metals up to mapping the human genome, take a quick crash through the development of scientific knowledge. Humankind has always been inquisitive, needing to understand why things behave in a certain way, and trying to link observation with prediction. For example, since prehistoric times we have observed the heavens and tried to make sense of the seasonal changes in the position of the sun, moon and stars. In about BC, the Mesopotamians tried to explain their observations by suggesting that the Earth was at the centre of the Universe, and that the other heavenly bodies moved around it.

Science encompasses the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment, and technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes. Oxford Reference provides more than , concise definitions and in-depth, specialist encyclopedic entries on the wide range of subjects within these broad disciplines. Our coverage comprises authoritative, highly accessible information on the very latest terminology, concepts, theories, techniques, people, and organizations relating to all areas of science and technology—from astronomy, engineering, physics, computer science, and mathematics, to life and earth sciences, chemistry, environmental science, biology, and psychology.

History of technology

Джабба покачал головой и бросил взгляд на Сьюзан, которая по-прежнему была где-то далеко, потом посмотрел в глаза директору. - Сэр, как вы знаете, всякий, кто хочет проникнуть в банк данных извне, должен пройти несколько уровней защиты. Фонтейн кивнул.

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 Чед Бринкерхофф, - представился.  - Личный помощник директора. Сьюзан сумела лишь невнятно прошептать: - ТРАНС… Бринкерхофф кивнул. - Забудьте об. Поехали. Свет от фары пробежал по цементным стенам. - В главный банк данных попал вирус, - сказал Бринкерхофф.

Раздались два приглушенных хлопка. Беккер вначале как бы застыл, потом начал медленно оседать. Быстрым движением Халохот подтащил его к скамье, стараясь успеть, прежде чем на спине проступят кровавые пятна. Шедшие мимо люди оборачивались, но Халохот не обращал на них внимания: еще секунда, и он исчезнет. Он ощупал пальцы жертвы, но не обнаружил никакого кольца. Еще .

 Дэвид. - Это Стратмор, - прозвучал знакомый голос. Сьюзан плюхнулась обратно в ванну. - Ох! - Она не могла скрыть разочарование.  - Здравствуйте, шеф. - Думала, кое-кто помоложе? - засмеялся Стратмор. - Да нет, сэр, - попыталась она сгладить неловкость.

Science and Technology

Ей нужно было сосредоточиться на неотложных вещах, требующих срочного решения.

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