Collection and presentation of data pdf

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collection and presentation of data pdf

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The quickest way to confuse your audience is by sharing too many details at once.

5 Data Presentation Hacks | Present data like a Pro!

Primary sources of data include government offices, private organizations, establishments and recognized individuals who have first hand information about an event. Secondary sources of data may be obtained from sources like newspapers, journals, and magazines. Methods of Collecting Data Interview Method The researcher makes direct and personal contact with the interviewee. The researcher gathers data by asking the interviewee series of questions.

Questionnaire Method distributes the questionnaire either personally or by mail and collects them by the same process. Registration Method method of collecting data is governed by our existing laws. Gathered from offices concerned, e. Methods of Collecting Data Contd Experimental Method collecting data is used to find out the case and effect relationship of certain phenomena under controlled conditions. Observation Method observe subjects individually or groups of individuals to obtain data and information related to the objectives of the investigation.

Texting Method may ask or invite individuals to send text opinions on certain issues or send in their choices on their brand preferences on a particular product using their cellphones.

The Slovins formula is. In order to obtain a genuine or unbiased sample, each member of the population must have an equal chance of being included in the sample. These methods are classified as non-probability sampling technique. Non-Probability Sampling Methods Convenience Sampling is used because it is convenient to the researcher. Quota Sampling uses the proportions of different strata; and from the strata, selections are done using quota.

Purposive Sampling gets this sample from the respondents purposely related or close to him. This method is desirable and effective when data are presented in paragraph form using small columns like those in the newspaper.

Stem and Leaf Presentation Stem and Leaf method orders the data in a concise way. The tables can be used conveniently to make a comparisons and draw relationships between and among variables. A statistical table shall show the following components: table heading table number and title , body contains quantitative data , stubs labels that classify values of a variable , box heads captions above the columns , footnote and source note.

Frequency Distribution Table. Example: Solution: Classes Frequency This is the frequency distribution of the previous data. Construct a frequency distribution table with 7 classes. In constructing a frequency polygon, follow the procedures below: Frequencies are placed on the vertical axis y-axis. The scores or midpoints of classes are placed in the horizontal axis x-axis.

The ratio of the x to y-axis should be or Plot the points and connect consecutive points with straight line. The curve is anchored at both ends to zero frequency or the figure formed should be a polygon closed broken lines.

If the first observation is too far from zero 0 , a break line shall be used to indicate that no value exists between 0 and the first observation. The steps in constructing a histogram are as follows: Draw and level the x and y axis. The x-axis is the horizontal axis and the y-axis is the vertical axis. Represent the frequencies as the heights on the y- axis and the class boundaries on the x-axis. Using the frequencies as the heights, draw bars for each class.

Similar to the histogram, the Pareto chart uses bars for frequencies. Rules for constructing the chart: Make bars the same in width. Arrange the data from the largest to the smallest according to their frequencies.

Make the units for the frequencies equal in size. Example: The following table shows the forms of suicide gathered by the national police officers in a particular year in a Metropolitan City.

This graph is used to show a trend of values or of an activity over a period of time. For the Less Than Ogive, plot the points of intersection starting from the lowest lower boundary against the lowest frequency. Continue plotting the points using the next upper boundary and the next higher frequency until all points of intersection are plotted. For the Greater Than Ogive, the points of intersection starts from the highest upper boundary and the highest frequency.

Continue plotting the points using the next lower boundary and the next lower frequency until all points of intersection are plotted. EQ Table A. Line graph used to show the relationship between two sets of quantities. Some Other Forms of Graph Contd Component bar chart chart divides or breaks down total quantities into their component parts. Statistical map used to describe or classify quantitative data by geographical areas. Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search. User Settings.

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Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: lecture on Statistics. Flag for inappropriate content. Download now. For Later. Chapter2 Collection Organization and Presentation of Data.

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importance of data presentation in statistics pdf

The digital image or photograph you are planning to use in a publication is not as clear as it could be. Is it okay to change the contrast of the parts you want to emphasise, or is this data fabrication or falsification? Working out how to interpret and then present your research material and data is probably the most creative aspect of research, but also an area where it is easiest to compromise integrity. The rules for interpretation and presentation are usually very field-specific and often unwritten. For example, no clear universally accepted standards exist to distinguish acceptable manipulation of digital images. See the box at the end of this section for guidance in this area, but if you have further questions:. Data interpretation and presentation is a crucial stage in conducting research, and presents three key challenges:.

5 Data Presentation Hacks | Present data like a Pro!

Data are usually collected in a raw format and thus the inherent information is difficult to understand. Therefore, raw data need to be summarized, processed, and analyzed. However, no matter how well manipulated, the information derived from the raw data should be presented in an effective format, otherwise, it would be a great loss for both authors and readers. In this article, the techniques of data and information presentation in textual, tabular, and graphical forms are introduced.

Present Your Data Like a Pro

different methods of data presentation pdf

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The Importance of Data. Doing this further helps in analysing data. Examples are given in the box below. Data analytics help in analyzing the value chain of business and gain insights.

This works best for simple observations, such as: "When viewed by light microscopy, all of the cells appeared dead. There are BI reporting tools that have predictive analytics options already implemented within them, but also made user-friendly so that you don't need to calculate anything manually or perform the robust and advanced analysis yourself. Diagrams are attractive. And when it comes to knowing how to make data analysis, this kind of collaborative approach is essential. With large amounts of data graphical presentation methods are often clearer to understand. Our modern information age leads to dynamic and extremely high growth of the data mining world.

Collection and Presentation of Data. ECONOMICS. Notes. MODULE - 6. Presentation and Analysis of Data in Economics. COLLECTION AND.


  • Presentation. This unit deals with data - how we collect, organise and display it. Types of Data. Qualitative data is data that is not given numerically;. Kerstin G. - 04.04.2021 at 17:20
  • Data Presentation forms an integral part of all academic studies, commercial, industrial and marketing activities as well as professional practices. Aynkan C. - 06.04.2021 at 15:20
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  • Primary sources of data include government offices, private organizations, establishments and recognized individuals who have first hand information about an event. Louis V. - 07.04.2021 at 19:01
  • Sources of Data. • Primary data. • Specific information collected by the person who is doing the research. • Secondary data. • Any material that has been. Emerson Z. - 07.04.2021 at 23:50