Characteristics of qualitative and quantitative research pdf

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characteristics of qualitative and quantitative research pdf

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The distinction between qualitative and quantitative research methods is problematic

Qualitative observational research can be characterized by at least ten overlapping themes that researchers should be aware of when collecting and analyzing data. In Qualitative Evaluation Methods , Patton discusses these characteristics to help researchers design studies.

All of the examples below are based on Balester's text, Cultural divide: A study of African-American college-level writers. Qualitative observational research is naturalistic because it studies a group in its natural setting. Patton explains, "Naturalistic inquiry is thus contrasted to experimental research where the investigator attempts to completely control the condition of the study" p.

For example, if you wanted to study college students who were speakers of BEV, you would not conduct your research in a predominantly Caucasian college or university. This characteristic is prevalent in qualitative research because it allows the observer to become immersed in a group.

The researcher starts with answers, but forms questions throughout the research process. Hypotheses and theories can continuously change depending on what the observer wants to know. For instance, an observer might realize that the purpose of many of BEV speech acts is to build up the reputation of the speaker.

Thus, the observer's job is to find out why. This could lead to further research into the rhetorical strategies and purposes of BEV.

Patton states, "[A] holistic approach assumes that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts" p. In other words, almost every action or communication must be taken as a part of the whole phenomenon of a certain community or culture.

However, this characteristic of qualitative observational research can be bothersome because it can lead researchers into taking every little action into consideration when writing a narrative. For instance, a researcher might notice that many speakers of BEV employ a particular rhetorical strategy in their writing. However, this phenomenon might not have anything to do with BEV and its traditions or strategies. It might be linked to something else in their lives. The researcher is responsible for becoming a part of a group to get a more in-depth study.

However, the researcher also has to be aware of biases both good and bad. For example, researchers who do not consider BEV a legitimate form of discourse should be aware of and acknowledge that bias before studying BEV. In contrast, a researcher who speaks BEV might ignore some negative implications of this discourse. Qualitative observational research is not concerned with having straightforward, right or wrong answers.

In addition, change in a study is common because the researcher is not concerned with finding only one answer. For example, a researcher could gain a different perspective on BEV by observing and interviewing a wide range of BEV speakers; the researcher could study both male and female speakers and speakers from different educational and geographical locations. Researchers must remember that every study is special and deserves in-depth attention.

This is especially necessary for doing cultural comparisons. For instance, a researcher may believe that "Jive" a way of talking in the s and BEV are the same because they both derive from African-American culture.

Researchers must realize the different variables, such as values and beliefs, that influence cultural behaviors. For example, knowing that the rhetorical strategies of BEV--signifying, running it down, putting down, putting on, etc. Ideally, researchers should be non-judgmental when compiling findings. Because complete neutrality is impossible, this characteristic is a controversial aspect of qualitative research. For instance, it would be difficult for a researcher not to judge students who completely stop speaking BEV upon coming to college, since BEV has strong roots in African-American culture and is strongly tied to speakers' identities.

This example might illustrate the difficulties in remaining completely neutral. Researchers can continue to do research on other topics or questions that emerge from the initial research. Some topics that could emerge from studying college students who are speakers of BEV are student composing processes, their academic success, or their assimilation or accommodation to academic discourse. This is a detailed description of why a culture is the way it is.

Triangulation, or the use of many data gathering methods, such as field notes, interviews, writing samples, and other data helps determine the cultural phenomenon of a group. For example, a researcher could collect personal letters from different BEV speakers to find a common bond that is inherent in all their personal letters.

The researcher could then interview the participants about their letter writing to get diverse points of view. In sum, the qualitative observational researcher must attempt to maintain a non-judgmental bias throughout the study.

The researcher's goal is to observe and describe group patterns, similarities, and differences as they occur. Preconceptions or expectations of an individual or group's behavior interferes with the researcher's ability to tell the group or culture's story in a fair and accurate manner. In addition, preconceived expectations preclude the researcher from observing subtle nuances of character and speech that may be important to understand group behaviors or interactions.

While absolute objectivity is impossible, it is paramount that researchers enter the field or study group with an open a mind, an awareness of their own biases, and a commitment to detach from those biases as much as possible while observing and representing the group.

My Page. Writing Center. Contents Introduction. Types of Qualitative Observational Research. Narrative Inquiry. Short Term Observation. Grounded Theory. Characteristics of Qualitative Observational Research. Methods of Qualitative Observational Research. Steps and Methods used in Qualitative Observational Research. Employing Multiple Methods. Computer Software for Qualitative Research. Related Links. Annotated Bibliography. Resources Print-Friendly Format.

About this Guide Contributors. Ethnography, Observational Research, and Narrative Inquiry.

Characteristics of Quantitative and QualitativeResearch

Qualitative observational research can be characterized by at least ten overlapping themes that researchers should be aware of when collecting and analyzing data. In Qualitative Evaluation Methods , Patton discusses these characteristics to help researchers design studies. All of the examples below are based on Balester's text, Cultural divide: A study of African-American college-level writers. Qualitative observational research is naturalistic because it studies a group in its natural setting. Patton explains, "Naturalistic inquiry is thus contrasted to experimental research where the investigator attempts to completely control the condition of the study" p.

Qualitative Research: Definition, Types, Methods and Examples

Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment]. A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality. Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Quantitative research focuses on numberic and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i.

Qualitative and Quantitative Research

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Quantitative research is defined as a systematic investigation of phenomena by gathering quantifiable data and performing statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques. Quantitative research collects information from existing and potential customers using sampling methods and sending out online surveys, online polls, questionnaires, etc. After careful understanding of these numbers to predict the future of a product or service and make changes accordingly. An example of quantitative research is the survey conducted to understand the amount of time a doctor takes to tend to a patient when the patient walks into the hospital.

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Qualitative research is defined as a market research method that focuses on obtaining data through open-ended and conversational communication. For example, consider a convenience store looking to improve its patronage. A systematic observation concludes that the number of men visiting this store are more.

EDD-904: Understanding & Using Data

About this Guide

Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment]. A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality. Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Quantitative research focuses on numberic and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i. The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantiative methods :.

By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Jump to Quantitative Research Data. Qualitative research is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting non-numerical data, such as language. Qualitative research can be used to understand how an individual subjectively perceives and gives meaning to their social reality. Qualitative data is defined as non-numerical data, such as text, video, photographs or audio recordings.

Researchers often have issues choosing which research method to go with: quantitative or qualitative research methods? Many incorrectly think the two terms can be used interchangeably. Qualitative research is regarded as exploratory and is used to uncover trends in thoughts and opinions, while quantitative research is used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into usable statistics.

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