Human anatomy and physiology of respiratory system pdf
File Name: human anatomy and physiology of respiratory system .zip
The trillions of cells in the body require an abundant and continuous supply of oxygen to carry out their vital functions. The organs of the respiratory system include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and their smaller branches, and the lungs, which contain the alveoli. The larynx or voice box routes air and food into the proper channels and plays a role in speech.
Sign up to an individual subscription to the Oxford Textbook of Critical Care. Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work. Except where otherwise stated, drug dosages and recommendations are for the non-pregnant adult who is not breastfeeding. Besides a gravitational perfusion distribution there is also a non-gravitational perfusion inhomogeneity that may possibly exceed gravitational inhomogeneity. The lungs contain 2— million alveoli with a total surface area, for gas exchange, of approximately m 2.
Most of the organs of the respiratory system help to distribute air, but only the tiny, grape-like alveoli and the alveolar ducts are responsible for actual gas exchange. In addition to air distribution and gas exchange, the respiratory system filters, warms, and humidifies the air you breathe. Organs in the respiratory system also play a role in speech and the sense of smell. Upper respiratory tract: Composed of the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx, the organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the chest cavity. Lower respiratory tract: Composed of the trachea, the lungs, and all segments of the bronchial tree including the alveoli , the organs of the lower respiratory tract are located inside the chest cavity. The inferior lobe is a section of the human lung. Each lung is divided into lobes; the right lung consists of the superior, middle, and inferior lobes,.
BIOL 215/216 - Anatomy & Physiology I & II: Respiratory System
Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation with each other is important for understanding respiratory physiology.
The major organs of the respiratory system function primarily to provide oxygen to body tissues for cellular respiration, remove the waste product carbon dioxide, and help to maintain acid-base balance. Portions of the respiratory system are also used for non-vital functions, such as sensing odors, speech production, and for straining, such as during childbirth or coughing Figure Functionally, the respiratory system can be divided into a conducting zone and a respiratory zone. The conducting zone of the respiratory system includes the organs and structures not directly involved in gas exchange. The gas exchange occurs in the respiratory zone. The major functions of the conducting zone are to provide a route for incoming and outgoing air, remove debris and pathogens from the incoming air, and warm and humidify the incoming air. Several structures within the conducting zone perform other functions as well.
Танкадо выехал из Японии. Он собирался следить за ходом аукциона по телефону. Но нам известно, где. - И вы не хотите ничего предпринять. - Нет. Он подстраховался - передал копию ключа анонимной третьей стороне на тот случай… ну, если с ним что-нибудь случится. Это можно было предвидеть, - подумала Сьюзан.