Milk and milk products pdf

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milk and milk products pdf

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There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality.


By Niamh Burke, Krzysztof A. Ryan and Catherine C. Sampling and analysis occur along the milk processing train: from collection at farm level, to intake at the diary plant, the processing steps, and the end products. Milk has a short shelf life; however, products such as milk powders have allowed a global industry to be developed. Quality control tests are vital to support activities for hygiene and food standards to meet regulatory and customer demands. Multiples of chemical and microbiological contamination tests are undertaken.

Hazard analysis testing strategies are necessary, but some tests may be redundant; it is therefore vital to identify product optimization quality control strategies.

The time taken to undergo testing and turnaround time are rarely measured. The dairy industry is a traditional industry with a low margin commodity. Industry 4. This chapter reviews the processing trains with suggestions for improved optimization.

Descriptive Food Science. The implementation of strategies to improve and strengthen milk process optimization is of vital importance within the dairy industry. The rapid deterioration of milk products forces dairy processors to critically optimize and plan their production schedules. The global dairy sector is currently going through change.

Notwithstanding this, the dairy sector is expanding and projected to grow at a rate of 1. This increase is mainly due to rising urbanization and growing incomes in emerging markets [ 5 ].

In the EU, however, dairy farmers have used intervention stocks to shield themselves from poorer international prices. In addition, changing consumer demand patterns are affecting food production.

Central to all of these drivers is a need for transparency from food companies [ 5 ]. Given the ever-changing nature of the consumer food value drivers, dairy producers must look to their production processes to innovate with new products and to optimize output without compromising on quality and safety. To be named a dairy product, food must be produced from the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, etc. The dairy sector includes food such as liquid milk, milk powders, cheese, butter, and yogurt, as well as ice cream.

Several factors including genetics, and breed of animal, environment, stages of lactation, parity, and nutrition, together determine the final composition of milk [ 8 ]. Milk and dairy products are significant sources of protein, essential minerals calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, iodine and several vitamins, the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K, and B1, B3, B6, B The milk proteins contain the nine essential amino acids required by humans, making it an important human food.

The caseins are easily digested, while the whey proteins are relatively less digestible in the intestine. The moisture content does not include water of crystallization of the lactose, the milk solids-not-fat content includes the water of crystallization of the lactose Source: [ 11 , 12 ]. The milk fat content varies within the same dairy products and between different dairy products.

Raw farm milk, full-fat milk, semi-skimmed milk, and skimmed milk have their own percentage of fat. This can be skimmed to obtain lower fat varieties. Full-fat milk is standardized to 3. Skimmed milk and buttermilk are very low in fat and, on average, contain 0. The fat content of milk and cream is also known as butterfat, an important factor in determining the price to be paid for milk supplied by farmers in many countries.

Milk sold to the consumer is standardized with a range of different fat content choices. However, international variances in standardization mean that the fat percentage for semi -skimmed, whole milk, and buttermilk can differ between countries. Modifications in the composition of milk are allowed, if they are indicated on the packing of the product, so that it can be easily seen and read, complying with the obligation as regards nutrition labeling, laid down by the countries regulations.

In the case of the EU, regulation No. Milk is not necessarily a local product and has developed into a global trade with the development of milk powders. The dairy industry, however, has been targeted in the climate change debate as it has been estimated that Extreme changes in climate can affect the microbiological safety of food.

Wet conditions are favorable to pathogen growth and may result in increased risk of food contamination, including mycotoxin. Aflatoxin M1 is the most studied mycotoxin in milk and levels exceeding the EU maximum level 0. Climate effects on animal diseases lead to increased use of veterinary medicines resulting in drug resistance and anthropogenic synthetic chemicals with the potential for transmission of chemical residues into the food chain.

Perchlorate reduces thyroid hormone production in the thyroid gland [ 17 ]. Milk arrives at the milk dairy processing plant over the weighbridge and the weight of milk is automatically recorded. At the same time, data from an on-board computer is downloaded wirelessly to a data capture system, which holds the records of the temperature and volumes of milk collected from each farm.

Milk samples using sterile containers are collected automatically from each supplier at source and are delivered to a laboratory technician for detailed analysis.

Milk that deviates in composition, taste, and smell from normal milk receives a lower quality rating. The technician also takes a composite sample, from each compartment in the refrigerated truck, which is compartmentalized to reduce sloshing of the milk. The samples from each compartment are tested for acidity, antibiotics, added water, fat, and protein content. The bacterial quality of the milk is also measured and these specify tests are outlined later.

The titratable acid test measures the acidity of the milk. Both titratable acidity TA and pH are measures of acid. TA is a more reliable indicator because relative to pH measurement, it is more sensitive to small changes in milk acidity, especially important in cheese making. The acidity of milk is of two types; natural acidity due to citrates and phosphates present in the milk and dissolved CO 2 during the processing of milking. The second is the developed acidity due to lactic acid produced by bacteria using the lactose in the milk as a nutrient, converting it to lactic acid.

The acidity of milk measures the total acidity natural acidity of milk and developed acidity. The appearance of a faint pink color, which signals the endpoint and the number of ml of NaOH used to reach the endpoint, is recorded. As this test is dependent on the analyst reading eye measurement of the color change, it is prone to human error causing incorrect and unpredictable recording of results. The antibiotic test uses kits known as Charm and Delvo tests.

The Charm test is made by Charm Science Inc. Considerable concerns regarding antibiotics in the food chain and antibiotic resistance transfer to human has been postulated, but in most cases, there is not sufficient evidence to demonstrate this conclusively [ 29 ]. The freezing point of milk is the constant physical-chemical property of milk, which is determined only by its water-soluble components such as lactose, and salts, which in accordance with the Wigner law are held in milk at an approximately constant concentration.

However, the mineral composition of milk depends on lactation, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors [ 30 ]. Adulteration of milk with water will cause a measureable rise of the freezing point of milk. The freezing point is also lowered by acidification of milk, which leads to protein denaturation.

The freezing point is considered as an accurate and sensitive method, most laboratories use a cryoscopy, method that is the ISO reference method ISO [ 21 ].

The milk fatty acids are derived almost equally from two sources, the feed and the microbial activity in the rumen of the cow [ 32 ]. Fatty acid composition can show rapid and significant variation in response to changes in diet.

Specific fatty acids produced during microbial fermentation of dietary fats in the rumen of the cows are responsible for low milk fat. The Gerber method is a historic method still used today to find the fat content of milk in particular in milk powders. By using specific butyrometers designed especially for the different dairy products, e.

There are many suppliers of such analytical tools, e. Infrared analysis IR is a commonly used method for the examination of milk and its components such as solid fat, milk proteins, or carbohydrates [ 37 , 38 ]. The protein fat and lactose content of milk has a bearing on the price the farmer achieves for its milk. Liquid milk contains around 3. The proteins in milk were described previously. The determination of protein content of milk and milk products underpins the international trade in dairy products.

There are different analytical approaches for the determination of protein quality for nutrition purposes and chemically defined protein. These are divided into three broad categories: i determination of total nitrogen, ii direct protein determination, and iii indirect protein determination [ 40 ]. The advantage of these methods is that they have high reliability and accuracy.

Together these tests and values form the basis for testing the quality of milk and milk products. The raw milk in the milk container truck, having passed the preliminary analytical tests, proceeds to whole milk intake bays and the milk hoses are connected up by the driver. The offload time and setup time taken to couple and decouple the milk intake hoses are areas where processing monitoring can be implemented. The pumping time can be variable, indicating performance specific to each pump and the flow rate represents a reasonable performance indicator.

Other significant factors that can influence pumping time include the volume of milk in the receiving silo, the number of bends and valves in each pipeline, and the associated backpressure variations.

At milk offload, process optimization can be achieved by ensuring pumps are working effectively, efficiently, and planning truck supply due to intelligent time slot management. Different milk processing plants have their own process trains. In many cases, milk must be clarified on reception at the dairy, to remove particles of dirt such as sand, soil, dust, and precipitated protein, which will protect downstream processing equipment.

In addition, removal of bacteria, spores, and somatic cells from milk can be achieved with centrifugation and microfiltration techniques [ 41 ]. Somatic cells such as leucocytes are removed, which will reduce the presence of Listeria trapped inside the leucocyte [ 42 ]. Reduction in the microbial load at this point can decrease the burden of biofilms [ 43 ], which leads to more efficient work of the HPE [ 44 ].

Milk bacterial clarification also avoids problems during cheese aging, and improves shelf life and organoleptic properties of the dairy products. A clarifier is a type of centrifugal separator, but clarifiers and milk separators serve slightly different duties. All centrifuges can act as clarifiers; however, in general, only centrifuges with a high hydraulic capacity are used in this way. The main use for centrifuges in diary processing plants is hot milk separation. The aim is to separate the globular milk fat from the serum, the skim milk.

This process is known as skimming.

Milk and Milk Products

Milk is a nutrient -rich liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals, including breastfed human infants before they are able to digest solid food. It holds many other nutrients, [2] including protein and lactose. Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon, particularly among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals. As an agricultural product, dairy milk is collected from farm animals. Throughout the world, more than six billion people consume milk and milk products. Between and million people live in dairy farming households.

DAERA milk / milk products Export Health Certificates (EHC) PDF applications

This article highlights the benefits of milk and milk products, as well as common misconceptions. A production plant for processing dairy products is called a dairy or a dairy factory. Dairy products are generally defined as food products that are produced from milk. They are rich sources of energy.

By Niamh Burke, Krzysztof A.

The Dairy Industry: Process, Monitoring, Standards, and Quality

Site news. Milk and Milk Products Technology. Topic outline. General Getting started. Course overview Page. Syllabus File. Introduction Page.

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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Mal Published Biology. Indian camels possess milk production potential and camel keepers consumed fresh camel milk daily. Save to Library.

Consider the forms of consumption of such milk products as butter, cheese, cream, voghurts, casein and ice cream. Yoghurt is a product obtained by fermenting.


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