Ancient history of jammu and kashmir pdf
File Name: ancient history of jammu and kashmir .zip
Since , India and Pakistan have been locked in conflict over Kashmir, a majority-Muslim region in the northernmost part of India.
Western districts of the former princely state known as Azad Kashmir and the northern territories known as Gilgit-Baltistan have been under Pakistani control since Below is the tabular description of the latest Administrative Structure of Jammu and Kashmir. Enjoy Reading. The Jammu and Kashmir is a state of India, located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges.
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu district derives its name from the city of Jammu which besides being the winter capital of the state, is known as the city of temples. It is believed that the city was originally founded by Raja Jamboo Lochan who lived in fourteenth century B. The Raja had gone out one day for hunting when he happened to witness a tiger and a goat drinking water from one and the same pond. This extraordinary phenomenon set him thinking and he decided to build a city at this site so that the strong and weak could live together in peace and mutual tolerance. Jammu is situated on a hillock, on the bank of river Tawi and is bound by Udhampur district in the north and northeast , Kathua district in the east and southeast, Pakistan Sialkote in west and Rajauri district and POK Bhimber in the northwest. Its skyline was once dotted with glittering spires of temples. These spikes are no longer visible as most of these are hidden behind multi storyed buildings.
The history of Kashmir is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of Central Asia , South Asia and East Asia. Historically, Kashmir referred to the Kashmir Valley. In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later in the ninth century, Shaivism arose. Islamization in Kashmir took place during 13th to 15th century and led to the eventual decline of the Kashmir Shaivism in Kashmir. However, the achievements of the previous civilizations were not lost. For the next five centuries, Muslim monarchs ruled Kashmir, including the Mughal Empire , who ruled from until , and the Afghan Durrani Empire , which ruled from until
Jammu and Kashmir , union territory of India until October 31, , a state , located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges. The territory is part of the larger region of Kashmir , which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan , and China since the partition of the subcontinent in Legislation passed in August set the stage for downgrading Jammu and Kashmir from statehood to union territory status and splitting off a part of it, known as the Ladakh region, into a separate union territory. The change went into effect on October 31 of that year, though several court cases affecting its status remained pending. The information that follows describes the former state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Ladakh region. Jammu and Kashmir, formerly one of the largest princely states of India, is bounded to the northeast by the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang China , to the east by the Tibet Autonomous Region China and the Chinese-administered portions of Kashmir, to the south by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab , to the southwest by Pakistan, and to the northwest by the Pakistani-administered portion of Kashmir. The administrative capitals are Srinagar in summer and Jammu in winter.
The Kashmir conflict: How did it start?
At the time of the partition of India and the political integration of India , Hari Singh , the ruler of the state, delayed making a decision about the future of his state. However, an uprising in the western districts of the state followed by an attack by raiders from the neighbouring Northwest Frontier Province , supported by Pakistan, forced his hand. On 26 October , Hari Singh acceded to India in return for the Indian military being airlifted to Kashmir to engage the Pakistan-supported forces, starting the Kashmir conflict  The western and northern districts presently known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan passed to the control of Pakistan, while the remaining territory remained under Indian control as the Indian-administered union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. There is a fringe of level land along the Punjab frontier, bordered by a plinth of low hilly country sparsely wooded, broken, and irregular. This is known as the Kandi, the home of the Chibs and the Dogras. This is a temperate country with forests of oak, rhododendron, chestnut, and higher up, of deodar and pine, a country of uplands, such as Bhadarwah and Kishtwar, drained by the deep gorge of the Chenab river.
Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)
I n Indian public imagination, the history of Jammu and Kashmir begins in It might seem today that the fundamental problem in Kashmir is the lack of genuine political representation. But even a quick overview of Kashmiri history by local historians shows that this has always been the case. While the ruling clans kept changing, a large number of Kashmiris in the past 1, years continued to feel they were un-represented and suppressed.
Kashmir has history of years, intermittently ruled by outsiders. The history of Kashmir is mainly divided into four periods:. Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shamasud-din, and his dynasty ruled the state for years. Firishta records that he persecuted the Hindus and issued orders prohibiting the residence of any other than Muslims in Kashmir. He also ordered the breaking of all golden and silver images.
А что, подумала Сьюзан, если броситься мимо него и побежать к двери. Но осуществить это намерение ей не пришлось. Внезапно кто-то начал колотить кулаком по стеклянной стене. Оба они - Хейл и Сьюзан - даже подпрыгнули от неожиданности. Это был Чатрукьян.
Я был. Но сейчас я .
Это было его местью. Она посвятила Дэвида в некоторые секреты криптографии и, желая держать его в состоянии полной готовности к неожиданностям, посылала ему записки, зашифрованные не слишком сложным образом. Список необходимых покупок, любовные признания - все приходило к нему в зашифрованном виде. Это была игра, и со временем Дэвид стал неплохим шифровальщиком. А потом решил отплатить ей той же монетой. Он начал подписывать свои записки Любовь без воска, Дэвид. Таких посланий она получила больше двух десятков.
- Мою колонку перепечатывают в Соединенных Штатах, у меня отличный английский. - Мне говорили, - улыбнулся Беккер. Он присел на край койки. - Теперь, мистер Клушар, позвольте спросить, почему такой человек, как вы, оказался в таком месте. В Севилье есть больницы получше. - Этот полицейский… - Клушар рассердился. - Он уронил меня с мотоцикла, бросил на улице, залитого кровью, как зарезанную свинью.
Вторая попытка также ни к чему не привела. Беккер заглянул в телефонный справочник. Оставался последний номер. Конец веревочки. Он набрал номер. - Escortes Belen, - ответил мужчина.
Звонок из Соединенных Штатов.