Prenatal factors affecting growth and development of fetus pdf
File Name: prenatal factors affecting growth and development of fetus .zip
- Prenatal development
- Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development
- Prenatal Risk Factors for Developmental Delay in Newcomer Children
- Prenatal risk factors and postnatal central nervous system function
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However, a number of things, usually caused by genetics or environmental problems, can go wrong during this time. Genetics plays a major role in development. In some cases, genetic problems can emerge that may impact both the current and future growth of the developing child in the womb. Environmental variables can also play a major role in prenatal development. Harmful environmental elements that can affect the fetus are known as teratogens.
Health care providers who see newcomer families have a pivotal role to play in identifying and initiating early treatment for developmental disabilities. Developmental disabilities may last a lifetime but early recognition of their existence, a timely diagnosis and an appropriate treatment plan can make a difference for the children and families involved. When seeing newcomer families, recognize that risk factors are cumulative. In many parts of the world, suboptimal conditions and care during pregnancy and childbirth can have a range of impacts on developmental health. Developmental disabilities in immigrant and refugee children do not always have a known cause. Common prenatal and perinatal risk factors to consider when taking a patient or family history are reviewed here.
Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development
Prenatal development starts with fertilization , in the germinal stage of embryonic development, and continues in fetal development until birth. In human pregnancy , prenatal development is also called antenatal development. The development of the human embryo follows fertilization , and continues as fetal development. By the end of the tenth week of gestational age the embryo has acquired its basic form and is referred to as a fetus. The next period is that of fetal development where many organs become fully developed. This fetal period is described both topically by organ and chronologically by time with major occurrences being listed by gestational age. The very early stages of embryonic development are the same in all mammals.
Prenatal development is highly influenced by the inheritance, expression, and regulation of genes. Developmental psychologists consider the process of human development as it relates to physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development. Prenatal development is the process that occurs during the 40 weeks prior to the birth of a child, and is heavily influenced by genetics. There are three stages of prenatal development— germinal, embryonic, and fetal. Prenatal development is also organized into trimesters: the first trimester ends with the end of the embryonic stage, the second trimester ends at week 20, and the third trimester ends at birth.
A fetus also foetus is a developing mammal after the embryonic stage and before birth. In humans, a fetus develops from the end of the 8th week of pregnancy when the major structures have formed , until birth. Maternal factors include maternal size, weight, weight for height, nutritional state, anemia, high environmental noise exposure, cigarette smoking, substance abuse, or uterine blood flow. Placental factors include size, microstructure densities and architecture , umbilical blood flow, transporters and binding proteins, nutrient utilization and nutrient production. Reference Terms.
Prenatal Risk Factors for Developmental Delay in Newcomer Children
The central nervous system CNS as the most complex human organ is frequently affected. Sometimes exposures cause gross damage to the brain, but subtle effects due to exposures to single and frequently multiple risk factors are much more common. Multiple risk factors with small effects are difficult to unravel and trace back to their individual effect.
Prenatal risk factors and postnatal central nervous system function
Jan E. Growth means increase in size due to an increase of existing structural and functional units. Differentiation is a process whereby a relatively simple system is changed into a more complicated one. Differentiation is accomplished by formation of new structures morphologic differentiation and by formation of new chemical compounds chemical differentiation. Development is related to biological systems a process resulting from a selective, time-related switching on and off of genes. In different biological systems, growth and differentiation are closely related.
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Relationships of Maternal Amino Acid Blood Levels to Fetal Development K. S.. Moghissi Familial Factors Affecting Fetal Growth Margaret Ounsted.