Role of it in environment and human health pdf
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- Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health
- Environment, Ethics, and Human Health
- Study Session 1 Human Interactions with the Environment
- Environmental health
Many of the most challenging ethical questions of our time address interactions between human health and the environment. How should we regulate pesticides, industrial chemicals, and pollutants? Should we develop genetically modified organisms for use in agriculture, medicine, and energy production?
Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Sudesh Shetkar. Anthony Rodrigues. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. One universal trend with major implications for sustainable development is the extremely rapid development and application of information technology IT , typically referred to as the "IT revolution. Melville, March There is an excessive reliance on technology to resolve environmental difficulties around the world nowadays, thanks to a virtually universal reluctance by governments and those who guide them to create the social and political changes that may be necessary to cut back growth in production and consumption.
However, the types of technological changes that may be necessary to stay up with and counter the growing environmental destruction caused by escalations in production and consumption would have to be honestly dramatic. The driving force of sustainable development, legislative measures, economic instruments, and customer pressures, are aimed at achieving technological changes like waste minimization, recycling, altered production processes, replacement of materials, pollution control and well-organized usage of resources.
Beder, Technology that's additional to existing production processes to manage and cut back pollution. One off the option available to replace the end of the pipe technologies is by implement new generation 'clean' technologies that adjust manufacturing procedures, assistances to the products and process themselves so that, they're more environmentally friendly.
Clean technologies are desirable to end-of-pipe technologies since they avoid the essential to extract and concentrate poisonous material from the waste stream and deal with it. Technologies must be used that need less water, energy and raw materials, and that decrease waste discharges.
Also, raw material inputs and processes are modified so instance, solvent-free inks and paints, and heavy metal-free pigments are used. The end products can be redesigned to decrease environmental impact during both manufacture and use, and waste flows is reused within the production process rather than dumped. Cleaner technologies don't always exist and, even when they are available; corporate tend not to exchange their old technologies until they have run their useful life.
Also, corporate opt to keep to a minimum the organisational changes that require to be made; they prefer to play it safe once it comes to investment in pollution management.
Haghseta, Most of substitute technologies aren't adopted since alternatives are more costly or less economical; there are typically other reasons, too. Even today several corporate aren't implementing technologies aimed towards waste reduction and minimisation, in spite of their accessibility and cost savings. A universal trend with vital implications for sustainable development is the extremely speedy development and use of information technology IT , often referred to as the "IT revolution.
By helping to motivate the globalisation of markets and tributary to a larger knowledge intensity of economies, IT has inspired the "knowledge-based economy.
Technologies such as decision support systems DSS , remote sensing and geographical information systems GIS , online web services, virtualization and cloud computing are examined in terms of the trend-setter role and of the impact on the sustainable development of society. This paper focuses on the problem of the waste management and the role of IT to support management activities. In the context of the sustainable waste prediction is of great interest to the businesses involved within the entire chain of waste management, to the local government in order to assess the expenses and establishing the budgets.
The most challenges highlighted in analysis are associated to totally different methodological features. Firstly, there's a necessity to move beyond the humble rationale that more productivity per hectare is sufficient to ensure growing eco-efficiency.
This advises a desire to search out a balance between quantities and qualities in addition as exploring prospect for implementation of semi-quantitative models in LCA. The goal must be to have comprehensive and scientifically sound measures. Elliot, March The research conveyed here undertook a three-phase approach of choosing, analysing, and synthesizing relevant literature to develop a holistic, Tran's disciplinary, integrative framework for IT-enabled corporate transformation.
The attention on business transformation is since business is recognized as being a crucial contributor in realizing the challenges of environmental sustainability due to its potential capacity for revolution and change -locally, nationally, and globally. This research Paper also serves as a resource base for researchers to start to undertake vital information structures and multidisciplinary work toward the objective of environmental sustainability. Through selection and analysis of explanatory examples of current work from twelve academic disciplines across six core classes, the framework addresses the key problems of uncertainty: 1 what's meant by environmental sustainability?
Shrivastava, IT and development, positive as well as negative, need got to be well understood to see that problems can be efficiently addressed by means of IT, however IT tools can be used, and in what context must the technology be executed. Deepening "digital" and "knowledge" divides, over-reliance on IT as a cure-all to whole problems, and environmental rebound effects are between the dynamics that disturb a country's capability to implement effective IT policies for sustainable development.
The word green IT is often used, notably in association with reducing energy usage in data centre. However the term is taken into account misleading. Green IT is an oxymoron; it emphases attention on technology instead of its application; and there's "inherent lack of greenness within the technology.
For the purpose of this study 25 manufacturing companies selected, out of Large and medium classes based on random sampling technics. This examination utilized the content analysis technique like percentage which is research methodology for making replicable and valid inferences form data. To evaluate the challenges related to applications of IT for Environmental Protection and Management. To study and understand potential impacts of IT on Environmental Protection.
Technology is stated to generically in many evaluative reports and research papers for its potential involvement to environmentally sustainable solutions. Certain specific technologies are identified for particular situations; for example, technologyenabled contributions to decrease environmental degradation, including clean coal technologies, more efficient energy production, and transportation substitution.
The technologies to be applied might be present or emerging; they could be enabling new chemical processes, waste processing, or video conferencing. At some stage, perhaps only for process coordination, management, monitoring, modelling, evaluation, and reporting purpose, it is greatly probable that IT will play a vital role. Environmental sustainability of IT refers to the role of IT in environmental sustainability as both problem and solution.
The term is employed widely however lacks common and consistent meaning. The term is defined in this article holistically from the perspectives of IT producers and those seeking to use IT for environmental sustainability as activities to reduce the negative effects and maximize the positive effects of human behaviour on the environment through the planning, production, application, operation, and disposal of IT and ITenabled merchandises and services throughout their life cycle.
ANALYSIS:The Challenges Related to Applications of it for Environmental Protection and Management: Environmental technology solutions permit companies to go ahead of environmental regulations and establish a firmer footing with regard to environmental and products liabilities.
They may permit industry to anticipate some regulations. They similarly permit some leading corporate to shape environmental regulations in line with their own internal policies. These corporate stand to gain competitive advantage over rivals. With of these potential advantages one wonders why lot of Corporate do not adopt environmental technologies quickly. There are numerous barriers to their adoption, including the following: Costs of developing solutions:Technological solutions for several environmental issues are expensive to develop.
They need new investigation, new technological info, new organizational arrangements, and generally new infrastructural services. Environmental technologies might increase up-front costs as a result of the essential for fresh designs, new setup costs, switchover costs from present procedures, and personnel training costs. But they can also reduce costs of operations, raw materials and energy, maintenance, waste disposal, pollution control, and environmental liabilities.
Possibly the net result is that environmental technology investments have longer payback periods than conventional investments. Lack of knowledge and environmental information:In some environmental regions technological solutions are merely not available at this time. For instance, think about the global warming issue caused by excessive greenhouse gases with in the atmosphere. There are not any financially possible and politically acceptable solutions currently presently accessible.
Every proposed solution has certain unintended negative effects. In such circumstances managers desire to take a wait-and-see attitude. Despite these and many more specific barriers in individual companies, environmental technologies are being adopted broadly and are collectively disturbing the competitive landscape. They enable corporate to remain competitive in world-wide markets, decrease costs and production periods, and improve strategic flexibility.
Potential Impacts of it on Environmental Protection:The most vital IT technologies that have contributed to the identification and implementation of recent methods of economic and social development that takes into consideration the assessment of the environmental impact of merchandises throughout their life cycle Technologies like a decision support systems DSS , remote sensing and geographical information systems GIS , online internet web services, virtualization and cloud computing are examined in terms of the innovator role and influence on the Environmental sustainability in society.
Types of Technology and Its Impact on Environmental Protection:The classification of environmental technologies is an essential first step in the process of characterizing an environmental technology group as a whole, monitoring changes, and assessing implications for performance. In fact, other research supports straighter -forward types for characterizing environmental technologies as fitting to three general classes: Pollution prevention, Management system, Pollution control.
With the support of these classifications, we can categorize the allocation of resources across environmental technologies over time and project-by-project for over all Environmental Protection and Management.
Pollution prevention technology:These technologies decrease or eliminate pollutants by using cleaner alternatives than those presently in Place. Product adaptation encompasses all investments that considerably modify an existing product's design to decrease any negative influence on the environment throughout any stage of the product's manufacture, use, disposal, or reuse.
Procedure adaptation refers to basic changes to the manufacturing process that decrease any negative impact on the environment throughout material acquisition, production, or delivery. The ultimate rethinking of a product or manufacturing process conjointly places fewer constraints on the means of realising environmental improvement, thereby providing larger prospect for innovation.
All environmental technologies, by definition, have some positive impact. However, pollution prevention technologies are likely to significantly decrease the overall amount of harmful pollutants released into the atmosphere and disposed of.
Pollutants don't seem to be simply transferred from one medium to a different for instance, from the air to solid waste ; instead, their generation is totally avoided. Management systems:These environmental technologies are nothing but infrastructural investments that affect the way manufacturing is managed. They embody efforts to formalize procedures for evaluating environmental impacts throughout capital decision budgeting, to extend external stakeholder involvement in managing processes, to extend worker training for spill prevention and waste reduction, to regulate an environmental department, and to develop new procedures for cross-functional coordination.
Monitoring, internal and external reporting, and connected compliance systems also are examples of management systems. Since these systems operate to both control and stop environmental degradation, no consistent result on performance is expected.
Pollution control technologies:A pollution prevention technology is structural investments. However, in distinction to prevention technologies, pollution control technologies recycle or dispose of impurities or harmful by-products at the finale stage of a manufacturing method, either instantly or later.
To accomplish this, a plant necessarily adds operations or equipment to the end of an existing manufacturing process, thus leaving the original product and method nearly unaltered.
Pollution control technologies can be more categorized as either rectification or end-of-pipe controls. Rectification refers to cleaning up environmental harm caused by crises or past practices, and it's usually driven by regulation or by improvement in scientific understanding of environmental harm.
End-of-pipe controls state to using equipment that is added as a final method step to capture pollutants and wastes before their discharge. Any environmental advantage offered by pollution control technologies is restricted to reducing the risk connected with a specific contaminant, either transferring it from a less secure medium to a more safer one for instance, from air emission to solid waste or changing it to a more benign sub-stance.
Thus, no important modification in the quantity of pollutants is predictable. Pros and Cons of it on Environment: Disadvantages of IT on Environment:One of the foremost important harmful effects of IT on sustainable development can be generally categorised as "rebound effects. Harmful rebound effects possibly occur once the widespread consumption of those products result in harmful environmental impacts that offset the initial resource savings.
These effects are typically classified as primary or secondary. Primary effects are direct environmental effects due to the manufacturing and usage of IT infrastructure. Secondary effects are environmental impacts that arise attributable to IT-induced changes in customer behaviour.
Primary Effects: Waste:IT products appear to end in less production of waste than other traditional products.
Environment, Ethics, and Human Health
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. The connection between protecting the natu- ral environment and safeguarding hu- The effect of various environmental man health has been recognized for exposures, such as toxic chemicals, air some time. In recent decades the focus pollution, and biological agents on the of research and legislation has been human body, is commonly perceived as identifying and regulating environmen- the central problem in environmental tal toxics to reduce harmful human ex- health. However, maintaining a healthy posures.
Information technology has tremendous potential in the field of environment education and health as in any other field like business, economics, politics or culture. Development of internet facilities, Geographic Information System GIS and information through satellites has generated a wealth of up-to- date information on various aspects of environment and health. A number of software have been developed for environment and health studies which are used friendly and can help an early learner in knowing and understanding the subject. Database is the collection of interrelated data on various subjects. It is usually in computerized form and can be retrieved whenever required. In the computer the information of database and can be very quickly retrieved.
Environmental and human monitoring can be improved to provide early signals of and human health. Box Social factors play a role in exposure to poor environmental conditions env-health-paperpdf. Ready, P.D.,
Study Session 1 Human Interactions with the Environment
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health. Environmental health is focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health. The major subdisciplines of environmental health are: environmental science ; environmental and occupational medicine, toxicology and epidemiology. Other terms referring to or concerning environmental health are environmental public health, and health protection. Environmental health was defined in a document by the World Health Organization WHO as: Those aspects of the human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment.
Check out our interactive infographic to see progress toward the Environmental Health objectives and other Healthy People topic areas. Humans interact with the environment constantly. These interactions affect quality of life, years of healthy life lived, and health disparities.
To understand the context of the WASH sector you need to understand the nature of the interactions between us as human beings and our environment. Humans need to interact with the environment to obtain our food, water, fuel, medicines, building materials and many other things. Advances in science and technology have helped us to exploit the environment for our benefit, but we have also introduced pollution and caused environmental damage. The impact of environmental problems on humans is significant, affecting all human activities, including health and socio-economic development.
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with the remote sensing and GIS play a key role in resource mapping, environmental conservation, management, planning and environmental impact assessment. It also helps in identifying several disease infested areas which are prone to some vector-borne diseases like malaria, schistosomiasis etc.